REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA <h4><span style="float: right; color: #111111; font-family: 'helvetica neue',helvetica,arial,verdana,sans-serif; font-size: 14.4px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: 18.72px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px; display: inline ! important; background-color: #ffffff;">ISSN Electrónico 2395 - 8030.</span></h4> The Mexican Society of Soil Science en-US REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2395-8030 Portada Interna 38-4 Rosa Maria López Atilano Copyright (c) 2020 2020-10-11 2020-10-11 38 4 Editorial Committee 38-4 Rosa Maria López Atilano Copyright (c) 2020 2020-10-11 2020-10-11 38 4 Index 38-4 Rosa Maria López Atilano Copyright (c) 2020 2020-10-11 2020-10-11 38 4 Authors Index Volume 38 Rosa Maria López-Atilano Copyright (c) 2020-10-12 2020-10-12 38 4 Fungal genus detected in soils of Chihuahuan Desert during dust storms along United States-Mexico border <p>Windblown dust in desert areas can have serious impact on human health by inhaling f ine dispersed mineral particles as well as microorganisms as fungi. There is a lack of information above the microscopic fungal diversity in north Mexico; the aim of this study was to determine the arid soil micro-fungal genus in the municipalities of Ascension and Ciudad Juarez, MX bordering with United States. A Surface soil samples were collected at eight sites identif ied as the source of the dust storms. A total of 234 soil samples were analyzed for moisture content, texture and fungal genus. Soil moisture content was lower than 4% at 3 cm depth from surface. Predominant soil textural classes were clay loam and sandy clay loam, but high variability in percentages of clay, silt, and sand was observed. Fourteen fungal genera were found, Aspergillus sp. was the most dominant followed by Rhizopus sp., Phytium sp., Alternaria sp., and Bipolaris sp. Dominance of the Aspergillus sp. fungus in this study is important because is toxic and cause serious health problems including bleeding in the lungs, and the others genus have serious effects on human respiratory system, also are pathogenic to many plants and animals.</p> Juan Pedro Flores Margez Jaime A. Jiménez-Cervantes Joel Adrian Hernández-Escamilla Evangelina Olivas-Enríquez Pedro Osuna-Ávila Manoj K Shukla Amir González-Delgado David W. Dubois Copyright (c) 2020 Terra Latinoamericana 2020-10-11 2020-10-11 38 4 725 734 10.28940/terra.v38i4.754 Population density of actinomycetes on flower cultured soils amended with vermicompost <p>The application of agrochemicals to floriculture gradually decreases fertility and populations of benef icial microorganisms of the soil, actinomycetes being biological indicators of edaphic quality. The objective of this study was to compare the changes in population density of actinomycetes in rose, carnation and flower of love floriculture soils, and their treatment with vermicompost. Treatments were flower of love as control, soil with pesticide from rose culture, soil with pesticide from carnation culture, soil with pesticide from rose culture conditioned with vermicompost 40&nbsp;Mg ha-1 and soil with pesticide from carnation culture conditioned with vermicompost 40&nbsp;Mg ha-1. During 28 days, total population density of actinomycetes was quantif ied by count plate. The floriculture soils have a sandy-loam texture, and due to their low content of organic matter, vermicompost was added to the treatments. The total actinomycete population of floriculture soils and vermicompost was 1 × 105 CFU g-1 of soil, which indicated a low content. Changes in the population density of actinomycetes were detected in treatments of soils cultured with rose and carnation with and without vermicompost, being higher in soils cultured with rose and carnation without the addition of vermicompost. The changes in the actinomycete population of soils cultured with rose and carnation indicate that these microorganisms are adapted to the application of pesticides. The addition of vermicompost improved the physicochemical properties of the floricultural soils in their respective treatments.</p> Gustavo Yáñez-Ocampo María Esther Sánchez-González Nadia de la Portilla-López Yolanda Marmolejo-Santillán Pedro Del Aguila-Juarez Jorge Lugo-de la Fuente Rocío Vaca-Paulín Copyright (c) 2020 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2020-10-11 2020-10-11 38 4 745 753 10.28940/terra.v38i4.570 Influence of different agroecological systems on the chemical indicators of a cultivated soil of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) <p>The agroecological system has an important impact on the nutritional status of the soil, which depends on its preparation and the plants that are grown. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of different agroecological systems on the chemical indicators of a soil cultivated with beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). An experimental design of randomized blocks, eight treatments and four replicates, was used. The treatments were cover plants: jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis, Adans.), velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens), pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill sp.), and crotalaria (Crotalaria sp. L.) planted in two cultivation systems: monoculture and associated with millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.), and two systems of soil preparation: conventional and direct seeding. The chemical indicators evaluated were: pH, organic matter, macro and micro nutrients (P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, and Zn) and the yield in the bean crop. The direct sowing system had influence on the chemical indicators of the soil, decreased pH (5.26), high contents of Ca and K, with values of 1.64 and 73.21 mg kg-1 respectively, with regard to the conventional system. Micronutrients Cu and Zn had signif icant values of 0.97 and 1.38 mg kg-1 respectively, with regard to the conventional system. Mg and K contents reached values very close to those of natural soil. In bean crop yield, the jack bean crop was highlighted with the highest number of pods per plant (14.25), grains per pods (5.93), grains per plant (84) and a yield of 4.4 Mg ha-1.</p> Marisol Rivero-Herrada Eduardo Gutiérrez-Rivero Yanila Esther Granados-Rivas Cesar Cristóbal Copyright (c) 2020 JOURNAL TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2020-10-11 2020-10-11 38 4 735 743 10.28940/terra.v38i4.558 The potential of Mimosa pigra to restore contaminated soil with anthracene and phenanthrene <p>Hydrocarbon contamination cause serious environmental damage and human health problems, therefore, to resolve this problem has been proposed diversely remediation techniques friendly with the environment i.e. bioaugmentation, biostimulation, natural attenuation and phytoremediation. Among options, the phytoremediation causes minimum alterations to soil, low cost, it has proved good eff iciency and gained public acceptation. In the present study, the capacity of Mimosa pigra to restore a contaminated soil with both anthracene and phenanthrene was evaluated, along with the soil physicochemical changes due to both plant and contaminant presence in the soil. A silt-loam contaminated soil with 100 mg kg-1 (dry weight) anthracene and 200 mg kg-1 (dry weight) phenanthrene was used in all three treatments: Contaminated soil with M. pigra (C1), contaminated soil without M.&nbsp;pigra (C2), and not contaminated soil with M. pigra (C0) as control. After 70 days of experimentation both biomass and height of M. pigra was not affected due to soil contaminants. There was no difference among treatments for some physicochemical characteristics e.g. soil pH, electrolytic conductivity, soil-texture, and total nitrogen content throughout the experiment. M.&nbsp;pigra increased the soil water holding capacity after 50 and 70 days of the experiment, however, total organic carbon content was lower after 70 days compared to the control treatment. The higher contaminant removal rate was before 7 days of experimentation for all treatments. Anthracene and phenanthrene content were lower in treatments with the presence of M. pigra: 92% of phenanthrene and 80% of anthracene were removed in C1 while nearly 77% of phenanthrene and 60% of anthracene were removed in C2. This suggest a greater removal of contaminants using M. pigra. Total removal of contaminants was not achieved. However, M. pigra was able to accumulate both compounds, showing the M. pigra capability for bioremediation use in contaminated soils.</p> Valentín Pérez-Hernández Lucía María Cristina Ventura-Canseco Federico Antonio Gutierrez-Miceli Isidro Pérez-Hernández Mario Hernández-Guzmán Samuel Enciso-Saenz Copyright (c) 2020 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2020-10-11 2020-10-11 38 4 755 769 10.28940/terra.v38i4.603 Combination of mycorrhizal fungi and phosphorus fertilization in the growth of two wild agaves <p>Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can contribute significantly to plant nutrition, especially in the phosphorus (P) assimilation. Wild agave populations are overexploited due to the intensive production of mezcal, causing the decline of natural populations. The effect of the inoculation with commercial mycorrhizal fungi and the application of different doses of P on the growth and total soluble solids content (SST) of two wild agaves: tobalá agave (Agave potatorum Zucc) and coyote agave (Agave spp.) in protected conditions was evaluated. The commercial mycorrhizal products used were Glomus cubense (M1) and Glumix (M2) and four doses of P: 0, 14.4, 29 and 43.5 mg kg-1. The assay was established into a 3 × 4 bifactorial experiment in a completely randomized design. The response variables were plant height (AP), number of leaves (NH), stem diameter (DT), root volume (VR), root density (DR), leaf fresh weight (PFH), stem fresh weight (PFT), root fresh weight (PFR) and SST. In regard to the control, M2 increased NH by 18.2%, PFH by 53.5%, PFT by 38.1% and DT by 36% in tobalá agave; whereas in coyote agave, AP increased by 12% and SST by 21.3%. In tobalá agave the dose of 43.5 mg kg-1 of P improved the AP by 13.2%, PFH by 34.9%, PFT by 36.1%, DT by 21.5% and VR by 20.4%. In coyote agave, the dose of 29 mg kg-1 of P favored the AP by 16.4%, PFT by 44.4% and DT by 18.6%. SST increased 40% with 43.5&nbsp;mg kg-1 of P and the PFH increased 51% with 29&nbsp;mg kg-1 of P. In tobalá agave, M2 + 43.5 mg kg-1 of P improved the PFH, PFT and DT. In coyote agave, M2 + 29 mg kg-1 of P, M2 + 14.4 mg kg-1 of P and M2 + 43.5 mg kg-1 of P promoted AP, DT and SST. The promotion of growth in both agaves was rather due to the individual application of mycorrhizal fungi and P than the interaction of both factors.</p> Ledia Itzel García Martínez Saúl Sánchez-Mendoza Angélica Bautista-Cruz Copyright (c) 2020 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2020-10-11 2020-10-11 38 4 771 780 10.28940/terra.v38i4.702 Soil quality indicators in temperate forests of the Volcanoes Biosphere Reserve, Mexico <p>Soil degradation and erosion decrease carbon content and soil quality due to changes in land use. In order to identify and recognize the best soil quality indicators and relate them to organic carbon content, this research was carried out in forests of the Volcanoes Biosphere Reserve. Twenty-six sites distributed from 2600 to 3800 m.a.s.l. were selected by collecting soil samples from 0 to -0.2 m for physical and chemical analyses and from 0 to -0.1 m for biochemical and biological analyses. The results showed pH, sand percentage; gravimetric water contents; organic carbon; exchangeable Ca+2 and K+; carbon microbial biomass; acid phosphatase activity; and presence/abundance of bacteria and algae as excellent partial indicators for evaluating soil quality (IpCS). With IpCS, total soil quality (CSTsum and CSTmul) was determined additively and commutatively showing similar tendencies; however, the additive model was better in showin that affected forests and secondary vegetation (2600 and 2700 m) have lower soil quality, while in middle and high fringe (3000-3300 m and 3600 m) with Abies forests and Abies-Pine mixed forests, soils had higher organic carbon content and high CSTsum and CSTmul values.</p> Gerardo Cruz-Flores Eloisa A. Guerra-Hernández Juan M. Valderrábano-Gómez Julio Campo-Alvés Copyright (c) 2020 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2020-10-11 2020-10-11 38 4 781 793 10.28940/terra.v38i4.421 Vermicompost on the production and nutraceutical quality of jalapeño pepper fruits (Capsicum annuum L.) <p>The vermicompost is used as a source of nutrients and substrate in protected horticulture because it promotes crop production more sustainable. The objective was to evaluate different proportions of vermicompost: sand (VC:S, v:v) on quality and yield of jalapeño pepper produced in greenhouse environments. Five proportions were compared VC:S, 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5 and a control: (Steiner nutrient solution). The experiment was established in a randomized blocks design with ten replications. On average ratio, VC:S (1:1) produce highest fruit weight, fruit length, total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity against to control treatment (0:1 VC:S). Those results indicate that VC is a fertilization alternative to increase nutraceutical fruit quality, without decrease the jalapeño pepper yield.</p> Bernardo Espinosa-Palomeque Pedro Cano-Ríos Lilia Salas-Pérez Gabriela González-Rodríguez Arturo Reyes-González Alma Velia Ayala-Garay Pablo Preciado-Rangel Copyright (c) 2020 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2020-10-11 2020-10-11 38 4 795 803 10.28940/terra.v38i4.605 Soil moisture tension, growth, water use efficiency, and yield of maize grown in northwest Mexico <p>Under scenarios of water scarcity, irrigation management in crops is of great importance. The objective of this study was to identify the optimum soil moisture tension (T) to produce the highest growth and corn yield in the Valley of Mexicali, Baja California (BC), Mexico. The crop was established during the 2017 spring-summer growing cycle. The tested treatments consisted of four soil moisture tensions [(T); (10, 20, 30 and 40 kPa)] and six corn varieties (G). The treatments were arranged in complete randomized design with four replicates (triple factorial). The first factor was soil moisture tension and the second one was corn variety. Crop growth expressed as height, leaf number, days to tasseling stage, and leaf area were measured. At the end of the experiment corn ears were harvested from each treatment and yield, grain weight, and irrigation water use efficiency were calculated. The interaction T × G was not significant (P &gt; 0.05) for any of the response variables. Treatment T affected both growth and development (P &lt; 0.05) at 50 days after planting. As T decreased, the number of days to reach the tassel stage decreased. G and T affected yields and irrigation water use efficiency (P &lt; 0.05). Asgrow RX 717 variety reached the tasseling stage in a shorter time, recording the highest yield (10.63 Mg ha-1) and irrigation water use efficiency (48.78 kg ha-1 mm-1) compared to the other tested varieties (P &lt; 0.05).</p> Fidel Núñez-Ramírez Isabel Escobosa-García Víctor Cárdenas-Salazar Jesús Santillano-Cázares Jesús del Rosario Ruelas-Islas Pablo Preciado-Rangel Jairo Díaz-Ramírez Copyright (c) 2020 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2020-10-11 2020-10-11 38 4 805 815 10.28940/terra.v38i4.763 Effect of microbial biofertilizers on the agronomic characteristic of the plant and fruit quality of xcat´ik pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) <p>Xcat´ik (Capsicum annuum L.) is the second most consumed pepper in the Yucatan Peninsula, after habanero pepper. The microbial biofertilizers are a feasible option to integrate into production systems to decrease the use of chemical fertilizers. The objective of this work was based on the evaluation of the effect of the application of Bacillus subtilis, Trichoderma harzanium and a microbial consortium on the agronomic characteristics of the plant and fruit quality of xcat´ik pepper. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions through a completely randomized blocks experimental design with four replicates. According to the results, it was found that the application of B. subtilis significantly increased plant height, while the application of B. subtilis and T. harzanium increased root volume. Statistical differences in the lipid and protein contents in fruits of plants biofertilized with T. harzanium were observed, and greater amounts of phosphorous accumulate in the fruits of plants treated with B. subtilis and T. harzanium.</p> Julio Jacobo Gamboa-Angulo Esaú Ruíz-Sánchez Carlos Juan Alvarado-López Federico Gutiérrez-Miceli Víctor M. Ruíz-Valdiviezo Kati Beatriz Medina-Dzul Copyright (c) 2020 Terra Latinoamericana 2020-10-11 2020-10-11 38 4 817 826 10.28940/terra.v38i4.716 Relationship between El Niño Southern Oscillation and Mexico’s orange yield anomalies <p>Los efectos de la Oscilación del Sur El Niño pueden ser medidos como sus impactos sobre los rendimientos de los cultivos. Sin embargo, esos efectos sobre los cultivos principales en México han sido estudiados escasamente. En este trabajo, el objetivo principal fue identificar las correlaciones entre las anomalías de rendimiento medio anual desde 1980 hasta 2015 de los cultivos limón (Citrus limonia L. Osbeck) o naranja (Citrus sinensis L.) en México y la Oscilación del Sur El Niño (OSEN) al involucrar el Índice OSEN Multivariado Ampliado (MEI.ext) o el Índice Niño Oceánico (ONI). Los resultados indican que el OSEN y las anomalías de rendimiento medio anual de limón estuvieron no correlacionados. Por el contrario, los eventos extremos del OSEN en su fase El Niño han tenido efectos positivos sobre las anomalías de rendimiento medio anual de naranja, especialmente de julio a noviembre.</p> Fidel Blanco-Macías Rafael Magallanes-Quintanar Miguel Márquez-Madrid Julián Cerano-Paredes Martín Martínez-Salvador Ricardo David Valdez-Cepeda Copyright (c) 2020 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2020-10-11 2020-10-11 38 4 827 832 10.28940/terra.v38i4.582 Correction of “mouse ear” symptoms in pecan with foliar applications of nickel <p>Nickel (Ni) deficiency in pecan trees (Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch) negatively affects leaf growth, nitrogen and carbon metabolism during foliage expansion, and consequently yield. Fertilization to the soil with micronutrients is ineffective in soils with high carbonate content and high pH. To evaluate the effect of foliar application of nickel on yield, nutritional content, and leaf area of pecan leaves, in a randomized block design four increasing doses were sprayed on foliage: 100, 150, 200 mg L-1 and one control with no application. The results indicate that Ni foliar spraying corrects the abnormality known as mouse ear (increase in leaf area) and increases absorption of this element by inhibiting the absorption of Cu and Mn. Spraying 100 mg L-1 increased leaf area and pecan yield per tree.</p> Mónica Hernández-López Juan Carlos Rodríguez-Ortiz Luis Guillermo Hernández-Montiel Uriel Figueroa-Viramontes Gerardo Zapata-Sifuentes Pablo Preciado-Rangel Copyright (c) 2020 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2020-10-11 2020-10-11 38 4 833 840 10.28940/terra.v38i4.791 Biological nitrogen fixation efficiency in strains of Rhizobium spp. collected in cultivated and wild bean <p>To assess efficiency in biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) of 27 Rhizobium spp. strains from plants of cultivated and wild bean from the western region of Mexico, a trial was conducted in mesh shade using a variety of bean Cuarenteño as host. A completely randomized experimental design was used with five replications and eight variables were recorded: stem length (SL) and root (RL), dry weight of stem (DSW) and root (DRW), number (NN) and dry weight of nodules (NDW), total nitrogen (TN) stem and chlorophyll content (CL). Analyses of variance and principal components were performed; efficiency indices were obtained by variable and groups of variables. Highly significant differences (P ≤ 0.01) were detected in six of the eight variables recorded. By variable value per se, Rhizojal VC3 collected in wild bean and Rhizojal ZCB3, Rhizojal ZCB1, Rhizojal TP2 and Rhizojal TP3 obtained in cultivated beans were selected. Rhizojal VC3, Rhizojal ZCB3 and Rhizojal TP2 were chosen by simple and group variable efficiency indexes. The analysis of main components separated most of the strains into two groups: strains from wild bean and strains collected in cultivated beans. Strains Rhizojal ZCB3, Rhizojal TP2 and Rhizojal TP3 showed higher values on the scale of the CP1; strain Rhizojal VC3, stood on the side of cultivated origin isolates. Considering the analyses performed, the strains identified as best in BNF were Rhizojal VC3 of wild bean and Rhizojal ZCB3 and Rhizojal TP2 of cultivated origin. The results indicated that the efficiency indices contributed to strain evaluation and selection by BNF and that the potential exists to identify efficient Rhizobium strains in BNF in the western region of Mexico.</p> José de Jesús López-Alcocer Rogelio Lépiz-Ildefonso Diego Raymundo González-Eguiarte Ramón Rodríguez-Macías Eduardo López-Alcocer Copyright (c) 2020 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2020-10-11 2020-10-11 38 4 841 852 10.28940/terra.v38i4.654 High phosphorus fertilization reduces mycorrhizal colonization and plant biomass of three cultivars of pineapple <p>A strategy to increase the productivity of pineapple agricultural systems is the excessive application of chemical fertilizers. In the state of Veracruz, Mexico, pineapple fields are being fertilized with P (180 to 240 kg ha-1) to maximize yields so that fertilizer applications keep increasing. We assessed the interaction between chemical phosphorus fertilizers, the establishment of mycorrhizal associations and biomass production of Cayenne, Champaka, and MD2 cultivars of pineapple in a greenhouse experiment. Plants were inoculated with a mycorrhizal consortium and grown with 0, 80, 200, 300, 500, and 600 mg phosphorus kg-1 soil additions in 8 kg pots for 8 months. Phosphorus reduced mycorrhizal colonization already at the lowest phosphorus fertilization dose in two of the three cultivars and became minimal for all cultivars from 200 mg P kg-1 soil. At the two highest phosphorus fertilization levels, shoot dry biomass and the dry weight of leaf D was reduced in all cultivars. The results show that the farmer´s practice of adding excessive fertilizer as an insurance principle is reaching the levels where fertilization is becoming detrimental for production and mycorrhizal benefits for the crop and the soil are being eliminated.</p> Dora Trejo Jacob Bañuelos Mayra E. Gavito Wendy Sangabriel-Conde Copyright (c) 2020 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2020-10-11 2020-10-11 38 4 853 858 10.28940/terra.v38i4.701 Maize (Zea mays L.) yields in southern Mexico calculated by the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer <p>Simulation models -based on biophysical processes- applied to agriculture allow knowing the dynamics of biological and environmental variables, but its use involves a large amount of soil information, climate, crop management and phenology. This study calibrated and validated, with grain yield, the genetic coefficients of the Crop Environment Resource Syntesis model (CERES-Maize) (DSSAT, version 4.7) of hybrid plants and corn creoles (Zea mays L.) The objective was to determine the scope and limitations of the model for estimating grain yields in the Mixteca (southern Mexico) region of Oaxaca, Mexico. For the calibration process, the setting for hybrid maize showed r2 = 0.94 and RMSE = 567.11 and r2 = 0.86 and RMSE = 601.58 for the Creole. The validation correlation process of hybrid maize showed r2 = 0.73 and RMSE = 976.65, values greater than Creole cultivation (r2 = 0.62, RMSE = 698.74). The CERES model underestimated in average 10% of grain yield. Hybrid cultivars showed 10% greater fit than Creole. In general, the CERES-Maize model adequately estimated maize yields.</p> Luis Enrique García-Montesinos Demetrio Salvador Fernández-Reynoso Erasmo Rubio-Granados Mario Roberto Martínez-Menes Leonardo Tijerina-Chávez Copyright (c) 2020 Terra Latinoamericana 2020-10-11 2020-10-11 38 4 859 870 10.28940/terra.v38i4.751 Physico-chemical and biological characteristics of the soil cultured with maize in conventional, agroecological and mixed systems in the Frailesca, Chiapas <p>With the aim of characterizing the soil of the maize agroecosystem under conventional, agroecological and mixed production systems, in order to document and identify strategies that consider the environmental, social and economic aspects that lead to alternatives for sustainable production, the physico-chemical and biological properties of 35 samples obtained in 28 communa land areas of Frailesca region, interpreted with the Official Mexican Standard NOM-021-SEMARNAT-2000. The results indicate a generalized acidity for the three systems, with pH of 5.05, 5.25 and 5.24, respectively; the cation exchange capacity is low (13.96, 12.54 and 14.95 cmol (+) kg-1) and organic matter is at average levels (3.5, 2.58 and 3.45%). Likewise, macronutrients are found in high levels, for instance, phosphorous reached 75.36, 74.78, and 45.05 mg kg-1 and potassium was found in low levels (3.86, 3.12, and 2.66 mg kg-1); micronutrients are found in average levels, such as Iron (3.24, 2.03 and 2.62 mg kg-1) and Boron (1.58, 1.06 and 1.37 mg kg‑1). In regard to soil texture, loam-clay-sandy and loam-sandy soils were detected. According to the biological characteristics of the soil, the macro-fauna with the agroecological system reported the greatest biodiversity in terms of the Shannon and Weaver index (H’ = 1.121), where coleopterans, annelids, hymenoptera, isoptera and gastropods were the most outstanding groups. For microorganisms, the greatest biodiversity (H’ = 1.121) was detected in entomopathogens (Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae), nitrogen fixers (Rhizobium, Azotobacter and Azospirillum) and pathogenic fungi such as Rizhoctonia, Fusarium and Alternaria, while the system with smallest diversity was the conventional, with H’ = 0.789. Under these soil conditions, a strategy that allows to increase soil quality and perform sustainable agricultural practices is needed.</p> Franklin B. Martínez-Aguilar Francisco Guevara-Hernández Carlos Ernesto Aguilar-Jiménez Luis Alfredo Rodríguez-Larramendi Mariela B. Reyes-Sosa Manuel A. La O-Arias Copyright (c) 2020 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2020-10-11 2020-10-11 38 4 871 881 10.28940/terra.v38i4.793 Vermicompost growth and uptake in Carludovica palmata R. & P. in Campeche, Mexico <p>Vermicompost is an organic fertilizer that increases soil fertility and crop productivity. The use of this organic fertilizer in Jipijapa (Carludovica palmate) palm productivity is a low-cost and environmentally-friendly alternative. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate vermicompost effects on leaf growth development of leaf growth of C. palmate for 120 days in an experimental plot located in Santa Cruz Ex-Hacienda, Calkiní, Campeche, Mexico. The experiment was based on Latin Square Design with six treatments and six replications. Treatments with vermicompost were applied in different doses (T1 = 0 Mg ha-1; T2 = 5.3 Mg ha-1; T3 = 10.6 Mg ha-1; T4 = 15.9 Mg ha-1; T5 = 10.6 Mg ha-1 of vermicompost + 0.22 Mg ha-1 of Triple 17 and T6 = 0.22 Mg ha-1 of Triple 17 EM®. The application of vermicompost had no significant differences on total number of leaves per hole and number of shoot of Jipi palm compared to the control (P &gt; 0.05). The frequency in the stages of shoot and opened leaves were significantly different for T4 and T5. The beneficial effects of Vermicompost were in growth and shoot development, leaf, petiole, and blade length, and less mortality in leaves.</p> Juan José Ortega-Haas Juan Manuel Pat-Fernández Regino Gómez-Álvarez Luis Ariel Manzanero-Acevedo Copyright (c) 2020 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2020-10-11 2020-10-11 38 4 883 893 10.28940/terra.v38i4.588 Organic carbon concentrations in the woodland and soils of the protected natural area “El Faro” in Tlalmanalco, Estado de Mexico <p>Despite restoration efforts, Mexico loses on average 500 000 ha of temperate forests annually, releasing the carbon stored in plant tissues, leaf litter, and soils into the atmosphere. Much of the temperate forests of Mexico grow on volcanic soils (Andosols), which cover approximately 1.2% of the country’s area. However, little information is available on how much carbon is stored in soil, leaf litter, and arboreal components of these systems. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine organic carbon concentration in trees, litter, and soil in “El Faro” Protected Natural Area in Tlalmanalco, Mexico State. This research selected eight study sites under four tree-cover categories: Cupressus-Pinus, Pinus-Quercus, Quercus-Pinus and Quercus, and determined species and normal diameter (DN) of trees with DN larger than 10 cm, samples of leaf litter and soil were collected at a depth of 0-20 cm. Soil organic carbon (SOC) concentration was determined in the laboratory in an elemental analyzer, as well as bulk density, porosity, and rock volume. Total carbon stored by trees was estimated using species-specific allometric formulas. The average total carbon content was 185.34 Mg ha-1, with an overall average of 56.40 Mg ha-1 in trees, 44.91 Mg ha-1 in leaf litter, and 84.03 Mg ha-1 in soil. The tree cover storing the most carbon in vegetation was Pinus-Quercus, with 71.74 Mg ha-1, and across all the study sites a positive correlation was recorded between total Quercus tree biomass and SOC. This result was probably due to faster accumulation and decomposition of Quercus leaf litter compared to pine needles. Based on the estimates of this study, 50 ha of El Faro protected natural area stored a total of 9267 Mg of carbon that could be released if the area were deforested, evidencing the importance of its conservation.</p> Oscar Cano-Flores Gilberto Vela-Correa Otilio A. Acevedo-Sandoval Miguel Ángel Valera-Pérez Copyright (c) 2020 Terra Latinoamericana 2020-10-11 2020-10-11 38 4 895 905 10.28940/terra.v38i4.757 Impact of wastewater on soil properties and accumulation of heavy metals <p>Nationally, the use of sewage water for irrigation of agricultural crops has increased over the last twenty years. However, its prolonged use can cause soil degradation and pollution. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of untreated, treated and mixed (1:1 ratio) sewage water on bulk density (Da), hydrogen potential (pH), electric conductivity (CE), cationic exchange capacity (CIC), organic matter (MO), exchangeable sodium percent (PSI) and concentrations of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) at three soil depths. The investigation was conducted in soils irrigated with sewage water for ten years. The results indicate significant differences among types of water in Da with values of 1.21, 1.25 and 1.50 g cm-3, for the soils irrigated with untreated, treated and mixed sewage water, respectively. Highly significant differences in pH were found: 8.04, 8.60 for the soils irrigated with untreated and treated sewage water. Soil PSI had percentages of 1.64, 4.64 and 6.44 for untreated, treated, and mixed sewage water, respectively. The highest concentrations of copper, lead and cadmium were 1.48, 2.91 y 0.16 mg kg‑1 in soil irrigated with untreated sewage water without exceeding the maximum permissible limits established in the Official Mexican Standard. The highest values of Da were observed at depth 60-90 cm for untreated and treated sewage water with values of 1.32 and 1.42 g cm-3, respectively. The highest concentrations of Pb and Cu were observed at the depth of 0-30 cm with values of 2.26 and 1.44 mg kg-1, respectively. The use of untreated sewage water negatively modifies soil physical-chemical properties and increases heavy metal content in the topsoil.</p> Mario García-Carrillo J. Guadalupe Luna-Ortega Miguel Ángel Gallegos-Robles Pablo Preciado-Rangel María Gabriela Cervantes-Vázquez Uriel González-Salas Copyright (c) 2020 JOURNAL TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2020-10-11 2020-10-11 38 4 907 916 10.28940/terra.v38i4.556 COVID-19: Adjustments for in the scientific research work in Mexico <p>In the immediate future and the medium term, activities of Scientific and Technological Research, Human Resource Training, and Linkage and Social Appropriation of Knowledge will suffer the hardships of the new restrictions imposed by the new reality of the COVID-19 Pandemic. Societies, economies, Research and Higher Education Institutions that manage to adapt faster to these new challenges and have the structural capacities to make their processes flexible, will have a better chance to fastly overcome this global contingency. In Mexico, un-der the perspective of social transfer of knowledge, far from being a disruptive phenomenon, the evolution that this transfer has followed seems to find –from the confinement and impact of the COVID 19 pandemic– real possibilities of increasing interest for science topics and the opportunity of accessing them through the use of information technologies (ICTs). This is the case of actions for the social transfer of knowledge in a public research center, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas del Noroeste, S.C. (CIBNOR), in which digital platforms have been consolidated to positively face the times. In this work, detailed, concrete and specific recom-mendations are provided so that the public institutions of research and Higher Education in Mexico can adapt to the new reality imposed by the pandemic as efficiently and functionally as possible in terms of scientific, humanistic and technological research, the training of human resources, and in the linkage and social appropriation of knowledge.</p> Alfredo Ortega-Rubio Bernardo Murillo-Amador Sara Cecilia Díaz-Castro Luis Felipe Beltrán-Morales Gracia Alicia Gómez-Anduro Cinthya Castro-Iglesias Maria Del Carmen Blazquez-Moreno Copyright (c) 2020 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2020-10-11 2020-10-11 38 4 917 930 10.28940/terra.v38i4.864 Coming out of invisibility: new challenges for soil science <p>The ecosystem functions and services that soils provide are essential for quality human life and are immersed, though not explicitly, in seven of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). However, in Mexico, soil deterioration is increasing, to the extent that it is a threat to food security. Despite extensive soil research by the country’s various public institutions, the results of this research do not permeate in public policies. In the face of this absence, new forms of research arise, where interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary dialogues are necessary, and new approaches to study must be attended individually and as part of the Mexican Society of Soil Sciences.</p> Jorge D. Etchevers-Barra Helena Cotler-Ávalos Claudia Hidalgo-Moreno Copyright (c) 2020 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2020-10-11 2020-10-11 38 4 931 939 10.28940/terra.v38i4.867