REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra <h4><span style="float: right; color: #111111; font-family: 'helvetica neue',helvetica,arial,verdana,sans-serif; font-size: 14.4px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: 18.72px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px; display: inline ! important; background-color: #ffffff;">ISSN Electrónico 2395 - 8030.</span></h4><br /><h4><span style="float: right; word-spacing: 0px; display: inline ! important; font-family: 'helvetica neue',helvetica,arial,verdana,sans-serif; font-size: 14.4px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: 18.72px; color: red;">"La Revista Terra Latinoamericana, con el objetivo de mejorar la calidad de Diseño y Vista de la Plataforma OJS utilizada actualmente para el Proceso de Recepción, Revisión, Edición y Publicación de artículos, solicita a todos los usuarios activos, pausar actividades en la revista el día viernes 27 marzo a partir de las 12:00 horas, con el propósito de evitar perdida en los cambios que se realicen o envíos de nuevos manuscritos. Las actividades se reanudaran el día lunes 30 Marzo a las 12:00 hrs." <br />Agradecemos de antemano su atención y comprensión. <br /><br /> Terra Latinoamericana ha sido evaluada para su inclusión en Scopus por el Consejo de Selección y Asesoría de Contenido (CSAB). La revisión de este título ahora está completa y el CSAB ha informado que el título será aceptado para su inclusión en Scopus.</span></h4> en-US editor@terralatinoamericana.org.mx (Dr. Bernardo Murillo Amador) cristopher.escalera@gmail.com (Cristopher Escalera de la Rosa) Fri, 31 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Portada Interna 38-1 http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/726 RosaMaria López-Atilano Copyright (c) 2020 Terra Latinoamericana http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/726 Fri, 31 Jan 2020 05:11:45 +0000 Comité Mesa http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/729 RosaMaria López-Atilano Copyright (c) 2020 Terra Latinoamericana http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/729 Índice 38-1 http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/727 RosaMaria López-Atilano Copyright (c) 2020 Terra Latinoamericana http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/727 Fri, 31 Jan 2020 05:11:45 +0000 An open receiver committed to soil conservation: Semblance about Dr. Mario Roberto Martínez-Menez http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/723 Through this semblance, the Mexican Soil Science Society (MSSS), CA, offers a sincere post mortem tribute to Dr. Mario Roberto Martínez-Menez, one of its most distinguished members. Dr. Martínez-Menez was born on July 22, 1945 in Teloloapan, Guerrero, Mexico, and died on May 31, 2019 in Mexico City. Their scientific contributions are circumscribed basically within three Soil Science areas: Soil Conservation, Erosion Dynamics and Watershed Management. Besides being an excellent soil scientist, he was an outstanding football player. Dr. Martínez-Menez was one of the best open receivers of the Toros Salvajes de Chapingo team, who in 2017 entered the National Football Hall of Fame. As a testimony, his scientific legacy has been recorded in the annals of the MSSS, C.A. David Espinosa-Victoria Copyright (c) 2020 Terra Latinoamericana http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/723 Fri, 31 Jan 2020 05:11:45 +0000 Profitability of grain and fodder production systems of corn hybrids, with biological and chemical fertilization in dry tropic http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/507 <p>In the spring-summer agricultural cycle of 2016, the hybrids P4082W, H565, and DK357 were evaluated with chemical and chemical + biological fertilization by means of a factorial experiment arranged in a split-plot design. In the treatments with biofertilizer the seed was inoculated with Glomus intraradices + Azospirillum brasilense; in chemical fertilization 120N-80P-80K was applied. The response variables measured were: height, diameter of the neck and number of leaves of the plant, number and weight of ears with and without bracts, weight of bracts, length and diameter of the ear, number of rows ear-1, grain weight of 5 ears of cobs, length, diameter and weight of the cobs, grain yield, fodder and dried grinding. To determine the profitability of the systems, the total cost (TC), total income (IT), and net income (IN) were calculated, and finally the gain by invested MXN peso (GIP). The statistical analysis included analysis of variance and test of comparisons of means by the Tukey method. It was found that the hybrid DK357 recorded the highest height, number of leaves, grain weight, length of ear and cob, yield of grain and forage, both “zacateado” and dried milled. The P4082W genotype obtained the highest weight of ear with and without bracts. The chemical fertilization favored the yield of forage zacateado, and in combination with the biological treatment, increased the yield of grain. The DK357 and P4082W hybrids grown with chemical and biological fertilization turned out to be profitable in the systems for the production of grain alone, forage grass and grain, and ground dried fodder.</p> Sergio Ayvar-Serna, José Francisco Díaz-Nájera, Mateo Vargas-Hernández, Antonio Mena-Bahena, Manuel Alejandro Tejeda-Reyes, Zacarías Cuevas-Apresa Copyright (c) 2020 JOURNAL TERRA LATINOAMERICANA http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/507 Fri, 31 Jan 2020 05:11:45 +0000 Biostimulants application effects on the quality and antioxidant capacity of zucchini fruits (Cucurbita pepo L. var. ‘Grey Zucchini’) http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/516 <p>Nowadays, agricultural research has not been only focused on studying the effect of different treatments on plant development and yield, but it has also been involved on study their effect on the postharvest quality of products. This study was conducted to determine the treatment effect based on plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (Azotobacter chroococcum), alone or combined with different oligosaccharins of pectic origin (Pectimorf®) or derivatives of chitosan (Quitomax®), on the postharvest quality of zucchini fruits (Cucurbita pepo&nbsp;L.) var. 'Grey Zucchini'. Physical characteristics (polar and equatorial diameter, weight, dry biomass, f irmness, and color) and chemical characteristics (pH, total soluble solids, treatable acidity and vitamin C), proteins, antioxidant enzymatic activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase and total peroxidase), polyphenol oxidase activity, and antioxidant content (phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity) were evaluated. Results showed significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) between control and treatments in most of the parameters evaluated, such as: color, length (up to 15.88%), width (up to 16.25%), weight (up to 57.31%), dry biomass (up to 34.43%), pH (down to 9.72%), vitamin C (up to 162.6%) and protein content (up to 22.38%), and total antioxidant capacity (down to 18.72%). Therefore, plant treatments improved the quality and composition of postharvest fruits, which accentuates the importance of organic treatments during the development of plants to obtain fruits with better organoleptic characteristics.</p> Lluvia de Abril Alexandra Soriano-Melgar, Humberto Izquierdo-Oviedo, Yvette Alessandra Saucedo-Espinosa, Antonio Cárdenas-Flores Copyright (c) 2020 JOURNAL TERRA LATINOAMERICANA http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/516 Fri, 31 Jan 2020 05:11:46 +0000 Inoculation effect of Azospirillum spp. over nutrimental content of moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/542 <p>Moringa is used for human and animal consumption due to its high content of proteins, vitamins and minerals. The present study analyzed and evaluated the effectiveness of Azospirillum spp. over the nutritional content of moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) under nursery conditions. The experimental design consisted of four treatments with six repetitions in complete blocks at random, which consisted of the inoculation at 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mL of suspension with 9.8 × 105 CFU mL-1 of Azospirillum spp. The study variables: biomass, protein, macro (P, K. Ca and Mg) and micronutriments (Na, Fe, Cu and Mn) in leaves and stems were determined 70 days after sowing. The analysis of variance showed signif icant statistical differences between treatments only for the variables: potassium content in leaves and calcium content, iron and sodium in stem. According to the comparison of means (P ≤ 0.05) the best treatments were those that received 0.5 and 1 mL of suspension. The inoculation of Azospirillum, failed to increase the dry weight and protein contents; however, the highest values (30.2% crude protein) were associated with its application. The absence of significant effects in the other variables evaluated is associated with inoculum concentration, however, higher values are shown in the nutrient contents in relation to results reported in other research.</p> Mario Alejandro Hernández-Chontal, Dinora Vazquez-Luna, Ariadna Linares-Gabriel, Gloria Esperanza De Dios-León, Armando Guerrero-Peña, Nereida Rodríguez-Orozco Copyright (c) 2020 JOURNAL TERRA LATINOAMERICANA http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/542 Fri, 31 Jan 2020 05:11:46 +0000 Ecological nutrient solutions on yield and quality of melon fruits http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/527 <p>Due to health benef its, organic food products have increased their demand in recent years. The objective was evaluating the effects of three ecological nutrient solutions, (Tea of compost, vermicompost, and leachate of vermicompost), on yield and quality of melon plants. As a control, an inorganic nutrient solution was used. Our results showed that compost tea promoted fruit yield equivalent to the inorganic nutrient solution. Plants fertilized with compost tea yielded fruits with the highest value of soluble solids content (9.98 ºBrix). Regarding antioxidant capacity, fruits fed with compost tea and vermicompost leachate obtained higher values than fruits fed with nutrient solution, fruits fed with vermicompost leachate obtained statistically higher values than fruits fed with chemical nutrient solution. Concerning to total phenolic content plants fed with vermicompost leachate obtained the highest value statistically similar to control plants fed with the Steiner nutrient solution. </p> Jose Antonio Gonzalez, Karen Marlen García-Villela, Pablo Preciado-Rangel, Ernesto Sifuentes-Ibarra, Lilia Salas-Pérez, Fidel Núñez-Ramírez Copyright (c) 2020 JOURNAL TERRA LATINOAMERICANA http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/527 Fri, 31 Jan 2020 05:11:46 +0000 ¿Does the incorporation of different species of Lupinus as green manure, affects the microbial activity of the soil? http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/501 In the state of Jalisco, corn and tequila agave are the most important agricultural crops. The soils to cultivate these species are characterized by low content of organic matter and nitrogen. The amendments applied to the soil provide an important source of energy and nutrients for microorganisms; promotes the diversity of nitrogen-f ixing bacteria and nitrifying bacteria, which increases nitrogen availability in the soil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of two species of wild legumes: Lupinus exaltatus and Lupinus rotundiflorus as green manure (AV), and its effect on soil microbial biomass. An aerobic incubation experiment (14 days) was carried out on soil samples with green manure and without green manure (control). Under laboratory conditions, the microbial activity of soil was monitored through the response in basal respiration and the concentration of C and N in the microbial biomass. The CO2 production and C and N content in the microbial biomass showed significant differences (P &lt; 0.05) due to the effect of green manure. The residues of Lupinus are considered better quality than the residues of Zea mays due to its nitrogen content and low C: N ratio. The response of microorganisms presented a positive primer effect with the input of AV. Therefore, we conclude that the input of L. exaltatus and L. rotundiflorus as a green manure to the soil increases the biological activity of the soil and promotes the enrichment of C and N of the microbial biomass. Isidro Zapata Hernández, Juan Francisco Zamora Natera, Ma Nieves Trujillo Tapia, Eustacio Ramirez Fuentes Copyright (c) 2020 JOURNAL TERRA LATINOAMERICANA http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/501 Fri, 31 Jan 2020 05:11:46 +0000 Infiltration and runoff of water in soils of a basin, in southern Mexico http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/443 Changes in the land use of a basin area affects the infiltration and surface water runoff directly, altering the balance of the hydrological cycle. Therefore, estimating parameters of water infiltration and runoff for each type of land use and vegetation (USV) is fundamental to differentiate the impact caused by a change of land use over the hydrical balance of a given area. The objective of this study was to estimate cumulative inf iltration (F), basic inf iltration rate (Ti), constant inf iltration rate (fc) and inf iltration decay coeff icient (k); as well as inf iltration and runoff coefficients in mountainous cloud forest (BMM), (SMSPC), pine-oak forest (BPQ), oak forest (BQ), induced grassland (PI), pine forest (BP), agricultural land in use (TC) and fallowed agricultural land (TCD). Thirty-eight simulated rain experiments were carried out at an average intensity of 100 mm h-1 with a hand-portable single nozzle rainfall simulator. The exponential model was employed to estimate fc and k and the Horton semi-empirical model to estimate Ti and F. The analysis of variance was performed by the generalized linear model (GML) to evaluate the effects of USV and texture type, and the analysis of covariance was employed to determine the effects of slope, mulch depth, organic matter % of total variability content, sand, mud and clay content, and bulk density. The exponential model fitted more than 80% of total variability (R2) at all USV. Agricultural land in use and TCD showed the lowest F and Ti and the highest k (P &lt; 0.001), BMM exhibited the highest infiltration capacity (F) and lowest decay rate (k). The bulk density of the soil, and content of mud and organic matter were the variables positively associated to infiltration (P &lt; 0.01). Salvador Lozano-Trejo, Jaime Olazo Aquino, María Isabel Pérez-León, Ernesto Castañeda-Hidalgo, Gustavo Omar Díaz-Zorrilla, Gisela Margarita Santiago-Martínez Copyright (c) 2020 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/443 Fri, 31 Jan 2020 05:11:47 +0000 Identification and isolation of heavy-metal tolerant and bioaccumulator bacteria obtained from El Fraile mine tailings, Mexico http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/430 The mining activity has left mine tailings with high quantities of heavy metals and metalloids. Due their extreme toxicity, they represent a hostile environment for microbial colonization; however, there are metalotolerant bacteria in these mining wastes, and this is attributed to mechanisms of bioaccumulation and biotransformation of metals. The native bacteria from El Fraile mine tailings have developed adaptation mechanisms that allow them to persist in a toxic environment, thus, the objective of this study was to isolate and identify bacteria with the ability to tolerate, bioaccumulate or biotransform heavy metals. Our study was based on descriptive observations, we isolated 141 strains from water, leachate, soil, and rhizosphere and stems of plants from El Fraile mine tailings, Guerrero, Mexico. Bacterial tolerance was determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration in different metallic salts, the capacity of bioaccumulation of Ag, Pb, Cr, and Cd, and by the biotransformation of As (III) and Cr6+; in addition, representative bacteria were identified using 16S rRNA gene sequences. The results of the 141 strains analyzed showed ascending tolerance to Cd2+ 2 mM, Cu2+ 5 mM, Pb2+ 9 mM, Zn2+ 9 mM, Ag2+ 10 mM, As3+ 30 mM, and As5+ 45 mM. Only 9.24 and 39% of the strains bioaccumulated Zn2+, Pb2+ and Ag2+. In regard to biotransformation, 9% oxidized As3+ to As5+, and 7 and 24% reduced As5+ to As3+ and Cr6+ to Cr3+, respectively. The genera that prevailed were Chryseobacterium sp., Staphyloccoccus sp., Stenotrophomonas sp., Acinetobacter sp., Bacillus sp., Serratia sp., and Enterobacter sp. These results showed that in El Fraile mine tailings, there are bacterial strains capable of bioaccumulating and biotransforming heavy metals and metalloids; therefore, further studies must be conducted to know their potential in the processes of bioremediation of areas polluted with metals. Erubiel Toledo-Hernández, Amairani Santana-Flores, Alejandro Sánchez-Ayala, Yanet Romero-Ramírez, Santo Ángel Ortega-Acosta, Jeiry Toribio-Jiménez Copyright (c) 2020 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/430 Fri, 31 Jan 2020 05:11:47 +0000 Evaluation of two remediation techniques applied to a site impacted by petroleum production waters http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/564 Salinity in soils is a problem that has increased in recent years, in the Mexican southeast one of the main sources associated with these effects is the oil production water, affected congenital water. Although the chemical composition changes between one site and another, it is documented that its components can cause harmful effects on health and ecosystems. To recover the vocation to use recovery areas, different treatments have been established that eliminate standardized parameters, but others that may influence soil quality are not considered. Therefore, two treatment techniques of a soil contaminated experimentally with congenital waters were evaluated, these were; cation exchange and natural attenuation, the evaluation consists in comparing the physical and chemical properties of the control soil, treated and treated after one year, some heavy metals are also determined in all of them. In the results, it is modif ied that the pollutant causes changes in the soil, such as, pH reduction (neutral to acid), porosity (20%), f ield capacity (50%) and organic matter (50%), as well as an increase in salinity (without saline to saline) and densities (10%), it is also increased that the concentrations of Pb, Zn, Ni increase. Na, Fe and V and Ca and K were reduced. Both treatments reduce salinity, but natural attenuation shows better results than cation exchange, mainly in pH, f ield capacity and textures, but with higher concentrations of sodium with respect to the witness in both cases, the metals are below the regulatory limit before and after the treatment, but when compared with control soils a level of increase in V and Pb is noted, because the area is immersed in oil activities, it is advisable to carry out long-term bioaccumulation studies. Ambar Yuridia Gómez-Mellado, Carlos Mario Morales-Bautista, Iliana Margarita De la Garza-Rodríguez, Sonia Alejandra Torres-Sánchez, Irma Sánchez-Lombardo Copyright (c) 2020 JOURNAL TERRA LATINOAMERICANA http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/564 Fri, 31 Jan 2020 05:11:47 +0000 Comparison of genotypes of opaque black common bean in acid soils of southern Veracruz http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/411 In southern Veracruz, Mexico, soil acidity is one of the main environmental factors that reduce the production yield of common bean. The objectives of this research were to identify outstanding opaque black bean breeding lines according to their level of adaptation to acid soils and high yield eff iciency with and without the addition of dolomite into the soil, as well as to determine which is the yield component that associates the most to a greater production of beans. During the Fall/Winter season of 2016-17 two trials were performed in Juan Rodríguez Clara, Veracruz, in a land with a soil of initial pH = 4.67. One trial was conducted under stress conditions by soil acidity and the other with 2.58 Mg ha-1 of dolomite, applied to the soil 27 d before sowing. Twelve black bean breeding lines were evaluated and compared to Negro Grijalva and Negro Comapa bean varieties. All beans were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The variables measured were dry matter production without grain, weight of 100 seeds, number of pods per plant and grain yield. An analysis of variance of the quantif ied variables and the least signif icant difference (LSD, 0.05) tests for separation of means were performed. Negro Citlali/XRAV-187-3-1-8 showed the best adaptation to acid soil conditions in southern Veracruz, which obtained yields of 911.0 and 706.3 kg ha-1 with and without dolomite, respectively. These values were signif icantly higher than the commercial beans. This breeding line also showed the highest productive eff iciency, since it obtained the highest geometric mean (MGi) values (802.1) and a relative eff iciency index (IERi) of 2.00. Under both conditions of edaphic acidity, the number of pods per plant was the only plant trait that was positively related to seed yield (r = 0.91 ** and 0.87 **, with and without dolomite). Oscar Hugo Tosquy-Valle, Rigoberto Zetina-Lezama, Ernesto López-Salinas, Francisco Javier Ibarra-Pérez, Bernardo Villar-Sánchez, José Raúl Rodríguez-Rodríguez Copyright (c) 2020 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/411 Fri, 31 Jan 2020 05:11:47 +0000 Plant-available water, stem diameter variations, chlorophyll fluorescence, and ion content in Pistacia lentiscus under salinity stress http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/510 The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological and hydric adaptability of Pistacia lentiscus (lentisco) to saline irrigation conditions. Plants of lentisco were subjected to four salinity treatments in the irrigation water (0, 50, 100 y 150 mM NaCl) during three months in a growth chamber in order to identify possible tolerance mechanisms to salinity stress. The results showed a reduction of aerial growth parameters, mainly in the 150 mM of NaCl treatment. The root biomass did not change; however, the root hydraulic conductivity was modif ied. This behavior was related with decreases in leaf water potential values both at morning and midday. With the increase of salinity in the irrigation water, the radial growth of stem of the plants was proportionally decreased, and Cl- and Na+ content at minimum and maximum illumination in leaves and roots increased. Stomatal conductance decreased in the plants with higher salinity level, although chlorophyll content and fluorescence were not affected by the salinity treatments. Although the growth rates were statistically affected in all the treatments, the plants were able to resist the salt stress through changes in the leaf structures, related to a reduction of water losses via transpiration. Marco Antonio Castillo-Campohermoso, Fernando Broetto, Ana Margarita Rodríguez-Hernández, Lluvia de Abril Alexandra Soriano-Melgar, Oussama Mounzer, María Jesús Sánchez-Blanco Copyright (c) 2020 JOURNAL TERRA LATINOAMERICANA http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/510 Fri, 31 Jan 2020 05:11:48 +0000 Presentation of Special Volume No. 38-1 http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/746 "Agricultural Homeopathy: Advances and Perspectives" Alfredo Ortega-Rubio Copyright (c) 2020 Terra Latinoamericana http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/746 Thu, 20 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of homeopathic medicines on the germination and initial growth of Salicornia bigelovii (Torr.) http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/580 The effect of homeopathic medicines on germination and initial growth of Salicornia bigelovii (Torr.) was evaluated under controlled conditions. A completely randomized experimental design was applied with three homeopathic treatments, Natrum muriaticum 7CH (NaM-7CH); Phosphoricum acidum 13CH (PhA-13CH); Natrum muriaticum 31CH (NaM-31CH); distilled water as control (AD) and six replicates per treatment. The response variables were the percentage and germination rate, stem and radicle length, and fresh and dry biomass of aerial and radicle parts. An analysis of variance and subsequent tests were performed to compare means (Tukey HSD, P ≤ 0.05) when a significant difference between treatments was found. A significant increase was observed in all the response variables evaluated in all the homeopathic treatments with respect to control (AD). The variables with the highest response were germination percentage, with values up to 44% and stem and radicle length with 35% above the control treatment in plants treated with NaM-7CH. These results confirmed the positive effect of homeopathic medicines on germination and initial growth of S. bigelovii, revealing that agricultural homeopathy, particularly NaM-7CH, PhA-13CH and NaM-31CH treatments, is a viable alternative to optimize the cultivation of species since it increases germination percentage and stimulates initial growth. José Manuel Mazón Suástegui, Carlos Michel Ojeda Silvera, Yuneisy Milagro Agüero Fernández, Daulemys Batista Sánchez, Dailenys Batista Sánchez, Milagro García Bernal, Fernando Abasolo Pacheco Copyright (c) 2020 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/580 Sun, 23 Feb 2020 22:22:00 +0000 Effects of homeopathic medicines on physiological indicators and the initial development of Yorimón bean (Vigna unguiculata L., Walp.) http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/581 Homeopathic medicine is a discipline of universal medical science, with increasing application in humans, animals and plants. The acceptance of agricultural homeopathy is increased by the safety and proven effectiveness of its ultra-diluted and agitated medicines, to stimulate the germination, development, growth and production of various plant species. The present work aimed to evaluate the effect of homeopathic medicines on physiological indicators and the development of Yorimón beans (Vigna unguiculata L., Walp.) var. Paceña. A completely randomized design was used with two homeopathic treatments, Manganum metallicum 31CH (MnM-31CH), Magnesium-manganum phosphoricum 3CH (MaMnP-3CH) and as a control treatment destilled water (DW), with six replicas per treatment. Photosynthetic rate, perspiration, total chlorophyll, leaf area and fresh and dried biomass of root, stem and leaves were evaluated. An analysis of variance was applied and when there was a signif icant difference between treatments, a comparison of means (Tukey HSD, P ≤ 0.05). The results revealed a signif icant increase for all the variables evaluated with respect to the control treatment (DW), in the plants that received treatments (MnM-31CH and MaMnP-3CH). Fresh root biomass was the response variable with the highest percentage increase (111.2%) and was recorded in the plants treated with MnM-31CH, compared to the plants in the control group, without medication (DW). Likewise, in the treated plants (MnM-31CH and MaMnP-3CH) there was an increase greater than 40% in total chlorophyll and in photosynthesis. This conf irms the effectiveness of applied treatments and reveals potential of agricultural homeopathy, as an alternative to achieve greater eff iciency in the cultivation of V. unguiculata. José Manuel Mazón Suástegui, Carlos Michel Ojeda, Milagro García Bernal, Daulemys Batista Sánchez, Alonso Daniel Gurrola Mesa, Erika Mesa Zavala Copyright (c) 2020 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/581 Sun, 23 Feb 2020 22:22:21 +0000 Response of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Quivicán variety to the application of homeopathic medicines http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/583 The response of Phaseolus vulgaris L. variety Quivican to the application of homeopathic medicines as growth promoters was assessed during its initial plant development. A completely randomized experimental design was applied with three homeopathic treatments: TH1 [MgM-31CH (Magnesium metallicum 31 CH)], TH2 [MaMnP-3CH (Magnesium-Manganum phosphoricum)], TH3 [TH1 + TH2), and distilled water as Control group. The analyses showed the best results in the plants that received TH3 with a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) with respect to the control group in the following response variables: length of stem (47.14%) and root (30.27%); biomass of fresh root (13.57%), leaves (68.36%) and stem (11.88%); dry biomass of leaves (84.72%) and stem (36.11%); leaf area (21.74%), stem diameter (39.54%) and number of leaves (16.66%). These results confirm that agricultural homeopathy is an eco-friendly and technologically viable alternative for bean cultivation because it stimulates growth, which allows obtaining more vigorous plants with greater productive potential and less dependent on agrochemicals. Because homeopathic medicines are harmless, the balance of the agroecosystem is also improved, achieving a positive impact in the short, medium and long term besides their application in conventional and organic agricultural production. Milagro García Bernal, Carlos Michel Ojeda Silvera, Daulemys Batista Sánchez, Fernando Abasolo Pacheco, José Manuel Mazón Suástegui Copyright (c) 2020 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/583 Sun, 23 Feb 2020 22:22:35 +0000 The Homeopathy increases tolerance to stress by NaCl in plants of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) variety Quivicán http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/584 Currently, the international scientif ic community is increasingly promoting the use of alternatives eco-friendly to the environment to solve agricultural problems, such as soil salinization. The use of agricultural homeopathy, as one of these alternatives, has increased because of its safety and proven effectiveness. This study assessed the effect of attenuating salinity stress (NaCl) of the homeopathic medicine Natrum muriaticum (NaM) on photosynthetic rate (TF) and morphometric variables of the common bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) variety white testa Quivican in initial plant growth stage. A completely randomized experimental design was applied with bifactorial arrangement (2A × 4B) where A = salinity levels (0 and 75 mM) and B = homeopathic dynamizations (NaM-7CH, NaM-13CH, NaM-7+13CH and distilled water [AD] as homeopathic control) with f ive replicates per treatment. The TF measurements were done twice a week, and the morphometric variables were measured at the end of the experimental evaluation period (35 days). In general, the assessed morphometric variables were favored with the application of the homeopathic treatments NaM 7CH and NaM 7+13CH; the increase in root length (LR) and fresh leaf biomass (BFH) were greater even when the plants were in salinity stress conditions (75mM NaCl). The TF reached the highest value when the plants in saline medium were treated with NaM-7CH, and an increase greater than 50% in PR was observed with respect to the (AD) control treatment. These results demonstrated a great potential of agricultural homeopathy as a bio-safe and low-cost alternative to increase P. vulgaris L. tolerance to NaCl and achieve greater areas of this crop. José Manuel Mazón Suástegui, Carlos Michel Ojeda Silvera, Milagro Ramona García Bernal, Daulemys Batista Sánchez, Fernando Abasolo Pacheco Copyright (c) 2020 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/584 Sun, 23 Feb 2020 22:22:51 +0000 Effect of homeopathic medicines during the initial stage and vegetative development of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.) http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/666 The application of bioactive substances in a minimum dose is an alternative to reduce the application of harmful agrochemicals in agriculture, particularly vegetables. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of four homeopathic medicines during germination, emergence, and vegetative development of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.). The experimental design included two centesimal homeopathic dynamizations (7CH and 13CH) of Silicea terra (SiT), Natrum muriaticum (NaM), Magnesia phosphorica (MaP), and Arsenicum album (ArA) and a control (water) treatment. A completely randomized 2 × 4 + 1 block design was used in three repetitions. The variables evaluated were rate and percentages of germination and emergence, stem and radicle length, and fresh and dry weight of the aerial part and radicle. Additionally, during the vegetative development the diameter of the stem and the number of leaves and flowers were evaluated. With ArA-13CH, significant differences in germination were observed (53.33%) and with NaM-13CH longer stem length (107.07 cm) during vegetative development, compared to the control group (78.63 cm). Radicle length showed significant differences with the application of SiT-7CH (49.59 cm) compared to the control group (28.6 cm). During germination the best result in the radicle fresh and dry weight was recorded when applying ArA-13CH. In emergence, the greatest fresh radicle weight was obtained with MaP-13CH, and the largest stem diameter, number of leaves and number of flowers were obtained with NaM. The results obtained confirmed that the evaluated homeopathic medicines positively affected the initial stage and vegetative development of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) under controlled conditions. This research represents an advance in agricultural homeopathy for the sustainable management of vegetable cultivation. Fernando Abasolo Pacheco, Carlos Michel Ojeda Silvera, Víctor García Gallirgos, Carolina Melgar Valdes, Karen Nuñez Cerezo, José Manuel Mazón Suástegui Copyright (c) 2020 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/666 Sun, 23 Feb 2020 22:23:03 +0000 Agronomic behavior of the turnip (Brassica napus L.) during the application of homeopathic medicines http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/667 The production of the turnip (Brassica napus L.) in Ecuador, depends largely on the use of agrochemicals, whose indiscriminate use causes negative effects on the environment. Agricultural homeopathy has emerged as an ecological alternative to improve the health status of plants. In order to help improve the sustainable production of vegetables, the effect of two centesimal dynamics (7CH and 31CH) of three homeopathic medicines for human use was evaluated: Silicea terra (SiT), Natrum muriaticum (NaM) and Phosphoricum acidum (PhA ), on the germination, emergence and vegetative development of B. napus plants, applying a completely randomized 2×3+1 block design with three repetitions for the three stages of the crop. The variables evaluated during germination and emergence were: percentage of germination and emergence, length of stem and radicle, fresh weight of the aerial part and radicle, dry weight of the aerial part and radicle. The variables evaluated during vegetative development were: plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, weight, leaf area and productive yield. Signif icant differences were recorded in all the variables and stages of development studied. The highest germination values corresponded to SiT-7CH and PhA-7CH (100%), surpassing the control group (83.5%). The PhA-7CH and NaM-31CH treatments stimulated stem growth in the germination stage (3.40 cm) and NaM-7CH root growth (4.07 cm) in the emergence stage. During the vegetative development, the plants with the highest production were those treated with NaM-7CH. The highest prof itability of the crop (71.33%), with a benef it / cost ratio of 1.7% was obtained with SiT-7CH. The results obtained suggest that agricultural homeopathy has potential in horticulture, since all treatments favorably influenced the response variables during germination, emergence and vegetative development of (Brassica napus L.). Fernando Abasolo Pacheco, Carlos Michel Ojeda Silvera, Jonathan Enrique Cervantes Molina, Enma Moran Villacreses, Daniel Vera Aviles, Enny Ganchozo Mendoza, José Manuel Mazón Suástegui Copyright (c) 2020 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/667 Sun, 23 Feb 2020 22:23:28 +0000 Natrum muriaticum attenuates NaCl stress in Capsicum annuum L. var. glabriusculum http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/677 Soil salinity is a global problem that increases year by year in arid and semi-arid regions, including Mexico where the distribution and extension of salinized soils reduces productivity and causes severe damage to different cultivated species. Homeopathic medicine is compatible with traditional, ecologic, and organic agriculture, and it can increase tolerance to salinity stress conditions and improve soil-plant ratio. Chiltepin chili (Capsicum annuum L. var. glabriusculum) is a species of high commercial value in northern Mexico affected by soil salinity. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the eff iciency of Natrum muriaticum (NaM) homeopathic medicine for human use, to mitigate NaCl stress in chiltepin chili established in a hydroponic system and subjected to different NaCl concentrations. A completely randomized design (2A × 3B) with factorial arrangement was used with four replicates of nine plants each. The plants were subjected to two NaCl (0 and 200 mM) concentrations, two centesimal NaM (7CH and 13CH) of NaM (NaM-7CH and NaM-13CH) dynamizations and a control treatment without NaM. The variables evaluated were length, aerial and root part fresh and dry weight, leaf area, chlorophyll A, B, total relative water content, and water potential. In general, the plants treated with NaM-13CH showed the highest values for the majority of the morphometric and physiological variables, including the plants subjected to high salinity stress by adding NaCl (200 mM). These results conf irmed that NaM attenuated NaCl stress in chiltepin chili (C. annuum L. var. glabriusculum) plants and that agricultural homeopathy has the potential to increase productivity and yield in hydroponic cultivation of the species. Margarito Rodríguez Álvarez, Nehemías Morales Roblero, Daulemys Batista Sánchez, José Manuel Mazón Suástegui Copyright (c) 2020 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/677 Sun, 23 Feb 2020 22:23:43 +0000 Effect of homeopathic medicines in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L.) http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/718 Agrochemical use in horticultural cultivations generates negative effects, thus the need for searching to decrease or eliminate its use by means of other less toxic techniques. Agricultural homeopathy represents an alternative for ecological agriculture, impacting positively in cultivation development. The effect of four homeopathic medicines for human use were assessed in two centesimal dynamizations (7CH and 13CH) [(Silicea Terra (SiT), Natrum muriaticum (NaM), Zincum phosphoricum (ZiP) and Phosphoricum acidum (PhA)], and a control treatment (distilled water) on tomato plant germination, emergence, and initial development. The treatments were established under a randomized complete block design with three repiclates. Germination and emergence rate and percentage and morphometric variables (plant height, radicle length, dry and wet weight) were assessed, including the variables in stem diameter and wet and dry leaf weight, number of branches, leaves, and buds in the vegetative development stage. Signif icant differences were observed in all the morphometric variables assessed in function of the different development stages, homeopathic medicines, and their different dynamizations. During germination, greater growth in stem length was observed with ZiP-7CH (5.5 ± 0.98 cm) compared to the control group (4.3 ± 1.10 cm). During the emergence stage, the treatments SiT-7CH (6.6 ± 1.11 cm) and ZiP-7CH (5.9 ± 1.41 cm) increased stem length signif icantly whereas with PhA-7CH, the best effects were obtained in the variables assessed during the vegetative development stage, LT (94 ± 8.31 cm), leaf number (No hojas) (131 ± 27.71), fresh stem biomass (BFT) (17.20 ± 2.45 g), wet leaf biomass (BFH) (30 ± 7.72 g), dry leaf biomass (BSH) (2 ± 0.61 g), fresh root biomass (BFR) (10 ± 6.26 g), dry root biomass (BSR) (1 ± 0.43 g), and number of flower buds (No H) (6 ± 7.10). The homeopathic medicines applied impacted positively during the initial and vegetative development stages of tomato under controlled conditions. This research study represents and advance in the sustainable management of tomato cultivation. Fernando Abasolo Pacheco, Boris Bonilla Montalván, Cesar Bermeo Toledo, Yarelys Ferrer Sánchez, Andy Jafet Ramirez Castillo, Erika Mesa Zavala, José Manuel Mazón Suástegui, Luis Llerena Ramos Copyright (c) 2020 Terra Latinoamericana http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/718 Sun, 23 Feb 2020 22:23:53 +0000 Revisores http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/730 RosaMaria López-Atilano Copyright (c) 2020 Terra Latinoamericana http://terralatinoamericana.org.mx/index.php/terra/article/view/730