REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA <h4><span style="float: right; color: #111111; font-family: 'helvetica neue',helvetica,arial,verdana,sans-serif; font-size: 14.4px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: 18.72px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px; display: inline ! important; background-color: #ffffff;">ISSN Electrónico 2395 - 8030.</span></h4> en-US (Dr. Bernardo Murillo Amador) (Cristopher Escalera de la Rosa) Mon, 06 Jul 2020 14:03:37 +0000 OJS 60 Editorial Committee 38-3 Rosa María López-Atilano Copyright (c) Mon, 06 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Index 38-3 Rosa María López-Atilano Copyright (c) Mon, 06 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Promoter of conservation tillage and erosion control: Life and work of Dr. Benjamín Figueroa Sandoval <p>The Mexican Soil Science Society, C.A. (MSSS), gives a deep of post-mortem recognition to Dr. Benjamín Figueroa Sandoval, one of its most distinguished and active members. Dr. Figueroa Sandoval was born on April 30, 1949 in Guadalajara, Jalisco, México, and died on February 21, 2020 in Salinas de Hidalgo, San Luis Potosí, México. His scientific work included the areas of research: sustainable agriculture, conservation tillage and soil physics. In addition to being an excellent soil scientist, he had among his hobbies the sport, being a football fan and basketball player, as well as reading and music. Dr. Figueroa Sandoval served as General Director of the Colegio de Postgraduados for two consecutive periods, from 1999 to 2003 and from 2004 to 2007. Much of his scientific legacy is embodied in the records of MSSS, CA.</p> David Espinosa-Victoria, Oscar Luis Figueroa-Rodríguez Copyright (c) 2020 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Sat, 04 Jul 2020 02:06:09 +0000 Chemical and biological properties of soils in milpa interlaced with fruit trees <p>The agricultural management of the soil in zones of hillside of the rain forest of Mexico, determines erosion and changes on physical and biological soil properties. The objective of this research was to evaluate the chemical and biological characteristics, in the milpa intercropped system in fruit trees (MIAF) and compare this with traditional agricultural and conservation tillage systems. The soils of the donor and recipient parts of the MIAF, of the traditional milpa and of the manageable with conservation tillage, are sampled; the chemical and biological characteristics in the soils of Axochío, San Andrés Tuxtla, Veracruz. The results indicate that the MIAF system improves groups of microorganisms, in addition to a pH closer to neutrality, higher content of organic matter, inorganic N, total N, total P, extractables P and K in f ilter zone.</p> Ana Magdalena Arriaga-Vázquez, Mario Roberto Martínez-Menez, Juan Enrique Rubiños-Panta, Demetrio Salvador Fernández-Reynoso, Julián Delgadillo-Martínez, Antonio Vázquez-Alarcón Copyright (c) 2020 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Sat, 04 Jul 2020 00:52:01 +0000 Effect of organic matter and cation exchange capacity on the acidity of soils cultured with corn in two regions of Chiapas, Mexico <p>One third of the world’s soils are acidic, under these conditions many crops are affected, especially when aluminum concentrations reach toxic levels. In order to establish the relationships between acidity indicators and cation exchange capacity, and pH and organic matter content, 13 sites were selected in Frailesca and Valles Zoque regions. Five sub-samples were collected at a depth of 0.30 m, in order to form a homogeneous sample per experimental site. Determination of pH, interchangeable cations, cation exchange capacity, organic matter content, and aluminium (Al3+) and hydrogen (H+) saturation was performed. The saturation percentage of Al3+ was exponentially correlated with increases in CIC, pH and calcium (Ca2+) saturation %; however, in regard to organic matter, Al3+ saturation adjusted significantly to a second order polynomial model, indicating a maximum saturation at values of 4.14% of organic matter. The percentage of H+ saturation adjusted negatively to an exponential function, decreasing at organic matter values higher than 2%. It is concluded that in the soils of Frailesca region, there is an acidification process that could lead to toxic increases of aluminum for corn culture, especially at pH values lower than five.</p> Wel Olveín Cruz-Macías, Luis Alfredo Rodríguez-Larramendi, Miguel Ángel Salas-Marina, Vidal Hernández-García, Rady Alejandra Campos-Saldaña, Moisés Hussein Chávez-Hernández, Alder Gordillo-Curiel Copyright (c) 2020 JOURNAL TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Sat, 04 Jul 2020 01:00:12 +0000 Effect of the addition of leachate and sulfur in the antioxidant capacity and phenolic content in germinated corn sprouts <p>Germinated maize sprouts were fertilized with vermicompost leachate and sulfur to analyze the effect of these compounds over the phytochemical quality in regard to total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. Total phenolic content (FNL), flavonoid (FVL) and antioxidant capacity (AOX) of sprouts were determined by comparing three treatments (leachate, sulfur, leachate-sulfur) as source of nutrients and a control (water). The results showed an increase in the concentration of the variables evaluated in the three treatments studied. The leachate-sulfur combination presented the highest values for FNL, FVL and AOX, with average values of 9123 mg g-1 PS, 6.63 mg g-1 PS, 6088 μmol TE/100 g‑1 PS, (70, 64, and 61% higher than control), respectively. These findings show that the nutritional value and functional properties of germinated maize sprouts can increase by the addition of sulfur and vermicompost leachate.</p> Cirilo Vázquez-Vázquez, Victoria Jared Borroel-García, Barbara Yahaira Espino-Paredes, Fátima Noemí Santa María-Hinojosa, José Luis García-Hernández, Mercedes Georgina Ramírez-Aragón Copyright (c) 2020 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Sat, 04 Jul 2020 01:11:46 +0000 Influence of Ca2+, pH, agar and plant growth regulators in the in vitro propagation of Echinocactus parryi (Engelm) <p>Echinocactus parryi is a threatened and endemic species of the municipality of Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico that presents important limitations for its propagation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of growth regulators, calcium concentration (Ca2+), environmental pH and gelling concentration in the morphogenetic response of E. parryi. The seeds were germinated in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium at 25% of the concentration of their salts (¼ MS). Epicotyls were cultured in an inverted position in media with different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) (0-10 mg L-1), indole-3-acetic acid (AIA) (0-0.5 mg L-1), pH 5.7 and 8, Ca2+ (13.2 µM and 26.4 µM) and agar (7 and 10 g L-1). The highest sprout formation (2.9 sprouts per explant) was obtained in MS medium with 2 mg L-1 of BAP combined with 0.5 mg L-1 of AIA, 13.2 µM of Ca2+, pH 8, and 7 g L-1 of agar, at 120 days of culture. The sprouts were transferred to MS medium with 2,3,5 tri‑iodobenzoic acid (TIBA) (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg L-1) to induce root formation. The highest rooting (70.5%) was obtained in medium with 0.5 mg L-1 of TIBA. The survival of the plants was 58% at 5 months. This is the first report that describes the in vitro regeneration of E. parryi and constitutes an important advance for its propagation and conservation.</p> Dolores Adilene García-González, María Del Socorro Santos-Diaz, Juan Pedro Flores-Margez, Pedro Osuna-Ávila Copyright (c) 2020 Terra Latinoamericana Sat, 04 Jul 2020 01:19:45 +0000 Using digital images to evaluate the colorimetric response of lisianthus plants to nutrient solutions in hydroponic systems <p>Lisianthus is an ornamental plant that has recently acquired great importance in national and international markets for its beauty and color variety. This crop is traditionally established in soil, but little information is known regarding its growth and development habits in hydroponic systems. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate through digital images the change in leaf and flower colors in lisianthus cultivation in hydroponics with different nutrition solutions. Four nutrition solutions (NS) were tested in the cultivation stage: (NS1) Steiner solution as control group and the rest of the treatments were modified solutions; (NS2) double concentration of Steiner solution; (NS3) a high amount of K was added; and (NS4) higher amount of calcium (18 mEq L-1). The parameters evaluated were plant height and leaf number, obtaining significant differences in both NS1 with respect to the NS4 leaf and flower phenotypic characteristics by the intensity of red, blue, and green (RGB) color model values; leaf was not affected by the treatments with modifications made to the Steiner solution. The variable R only showed significant differences in NS1 compared to NS4 with a higher amount of calcium, but it did not occur for the other variables. This phenomenon only occurred on day 61 after transplant (DAT). Regarding the effect of the nutrient solution on flower color, a significant difference was found in the R variables in Steiner solution (NS1). A difference was also observed in the solution with high potassium concentrations. The same occurred for the artificial variables used.</p> Daniela Rodríguez-Serrano, Francisco Marcelo Lara-Viveros, Susana Graciela Sánchez-Herrera, Graciano Javier Aguado-Rodríguez Copyright (c) 2020 JOURNAL TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Sat, 04 Jul 2020 01:25:20 +0000 Grain yield and population densities of new corn hybrids released by the INIFAP and UNAM for the High Valleys of Mexico† <p>In Mexico, corn (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important cereals from the alimentary, industrial, social, political, and cultural points of view. It is grown in different agroecological niches, water regimes, and management systems. The objective of the present research work was to study the optimum plant density per area unit and its effect on grain yield and agronomical characteristics of different corn hybrids. Six corn hybrids (H-51 AE, H 53 AE, H 47 AE, H 49 AE, Tsíri PUMA, and H-48) and three plant densities (50 000, 65 000, and 80 000 plants ha-1) were evaluated. Sowing was done during the spring-summer season, 2015, in field owned by the FESC-UNAM and CEVAMEX-INIFAP. A completely randomized block design was used with four replicates. Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) were detected for genotypes (G) in the variables of grain yield, plant height, ear height, days to male and female flowering, volumetric weight, grain weight, ear length, and grains per ear. Moreover, the effect of the environment (E) was significant (P ≤ 0.05) for the same variables, with the exception of ear length. No significant differences (P ≥ 0.05) were registered for the densities factor (D). Only the G×E interaction had significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) in the grain yield trait. The better environment was CEVAMEX, with a mean yield of 5497 kg ha-1. The Tsíri PUMA hybrid had the best grain yield with 5856 kg ha-1. Although there were no differences for the studied interactions, the 65 000 plants ha-1 population density was the most appropriate. The densities factor did not affect the performance of the evaluated hybrids. Therefore, we recommend using 65 000 plants ha-1 to avoid investing in large amounts of seeds.</p> Margarita Tadeo-Robledo, Alejandro Espinosa-Calderón, Enrique Canales-Islas, Consuelo López-López, Benjamín Zamudio-González, Antonio Turrent-Fernández, Noel Gómez-Montiel, Mauro Sierra-Macías, Aarón Martínez-Gutiérrez, Roberto Valdivia-Bernal , Pablo Andrés-Meza Copyright (c) 2020 JOURNAL TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Sat, 04 Jul 2020 01:30:16 +0000 Citrange troyer growth and chemical-microbiological attributes of the soil in response to different organic fertilizers <p>Citrus production depends principally on the healthiest, appropriate and vigorous rootstock available; part of its reproduction is associated with the use of chemical fertilizers, that contribute to ecosystem contamination. Uses of organic fertilizers are alternatives to reduce the use of chemical fertilizers. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of three organic fertilizers (chicken manure, sugarcane residue (1 and 2), and banana waste) supplied in three doses (1, 2 and 3%), in chemical and microbiological soil properties and in Citrange troyer rootstock growth in greenhouse. A complete randomized design was used with 14 treatments and six replicates each, including two control groups (absolute and fertilized). Serial dilutions in specific media were used to quantify Azospirillum, Azotobacter, phosphate and potassium solubilizing bacteria. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were evaluated according to the clearing and dyeing technique with trypan blue. Soil pH increased 0.9 units when adding 1% sugarcane residue-2; while organic carbon increased 0.7% with chicken manure 1%; Azospirillum, Azotobacter and phosphate solubilizing bacteria increased in the treatments supplied with sugarcane residue-1 1% and chicken manure 1%. The cachaza-1 2% induced greater mycorrhizal colonization and increased plant growth. Nine of twelve treatments with the organic fertilizers used, positively modif ied soil chemical and microbiological properties, resulting in a better growth of Citrange troyer compared with the control groups.</p> María del Carmen Rivera-Cruz, Apolinar González-Mancilla, Juan José Almaraz-Suárez, Carlos Fredy Ortiz-García, Antonio Trujillo Narcía, Patricia Vázquez-López, Gonzalo Cruz-Navarro Copyright (c) 2020 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Sat, 04 Jul 2020 01:47:12 +0000 Physical and chemical properties of the urban soil in the San Juan de Aragon Park, Mexico City <p>In view of the lack of studies on urban soils in Mexico, this paper evaluated eight physical and chemical properties used by the Soil Condition Indicator of the FIA (Forest Inventory and Analysis National Program, United States), to determine the quality of the soils and its role in the developmentof tree species present in the San Juan de Aragon Park. The properties evaluated and analyzed in horizontal and vertical terms were: pH, electrical conductivity, salt content, texture, bulk density, and percentages of organic matter, organic carbon and porous space. 96&nbsp;soil samples were collected over 28 sampling sites of 0.1&nbsp;ha, at three depths, 0-5, 5-10 and 10-15 cm. The average soil pH was 7.2; electrical conductivity, 0.51 dS m-1; bulk density, 1.02 g cm-3; porous space, 61.84%; total dissolved salts, 327.20 mg L-1; organic matter, 3.6% and organic carbon, 2.63%, as well as a frank textural class. The soils of the study area presented vertical variability for apparent density, porous space, organic matter, organic carbon, electrical conductivity, and soluble salts, and were relatively homogeneous horizontally. Except for organic matter, the rest of the properties presented acceptable values for good development of the tree species present. The measurement of the evaluated properties, allowed to obtain a real panorama about the ability of this urban land to function, which is adequate to support the development of woody species.</p> Luz de Lourdes Saavedra-Romero, Dionicio Alvarado-Rosales, Tomás Martínez-Trinidad, Patricia Hernández-de la Rosa Copyright (c) 2020 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Sat, 04 Jul 2020 01:54:48 +0000 Presentation of Special Volume No. 38-3 <p>En Latinoamérica y El Caribe, regiones con una enorme riqueza biológica y cultural, resultan paradójicas las inmensas brechas de desarrollo que no han logrado satisfacer las demandas de una población en crecimiento constante. Como en el resto del mundo, en estas regiones se adoptaron con entusiasmo los modelos agrícolas de la llamada “revolución verde” a mediados del siglo XX, para aumentar la producción de alimentos con fertilizantes sintéticos y la tecnificación de los sistemas de cultivo. El resultado, sí, un incremento de la producción vegetal, cuyos costos económicos y ecológicos tan elevados han puesto en riesgo el bienestar y la supervivencia de la biodiversidad, incluido el hombre, sin lograr satisfacer los requerimientos de alimentos de una población que rebasa los 600 millones de habitantes y que crece día tras día.</p> Laura Verónica Hernández-Cuevas Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 20 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Native mycorrhizal fungi as growth promoters in guava plants (Psidium guajava L.) <p>This research study assessed the effect of f ive native consortia of arbuscular mycorrhiza on guava (Psidium guajava L.) plant growth. A completely randomized experimental design was established with seven arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) treatments named: Las Campesinas (LC), Carlos Rojas (CR), Paso Ancho (PA), El Limón (EL), Cerro del Metate (CM) (native consortia), a commercial strain from the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias (INIFAP®), and a control group without AMF (w/AMF), in a sterilized sand-soil mixture and under greenhouse conditions. Guava seeds germinated in sterilized sand; the seedlings were subsequently transplanted to a nursery bag with a sterilized sand-soil mixture where they were inoculated with the different AMF treatments. At 125 days after transplant, a destructive sampling was performed, recording plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, and fresh and dry biomass of each part. As variables of plant quality, dry biomass ratio of the aerial part/dry biomass of the root, index of robustness, and Dickson index were determined. The mycorrhizal colonization and spore production in the substrate were determined as microbiological variables. The results showed a differential effect on growth promotion in guava plants when they were inoculated with a native AMF consortium. Among the different consortia evaluated, EL promoted the best guava plant development and quality and where the highest colonization and spore production were reached in the substrate. The plants w/AMF or with the INIFAP inoculum had the highest mortality rate. The colonization percentages were higher than 60%, except for the CM consortium. Therefore, using AMF could be an advisable practice for the sustainable production of guava trees.</p> Evangelina Esmeralda Quiñones-Aguilar, Gabriel Rincón-Enríquez, Luis López-Pérez Copyright (c) 2020 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Tue, 28 Jul 2020 23:00:35 +0000 Agave potatorum Zucc. growth promotion by free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria <p>The free-living nitrogen-f ixing bacteria (FLNFB) can be an important alternative to replace mineral fertilizers in agriculture. Agave potatorum Zucc, commonly known as “maguey tobalá”, is a wild species from which a highly demanded “mezcal” (liquor) is obtained and distinguished by its high quality. As it is a wild species, not much information is available referring to its agricultural management. This study assessed the effect of FLNFB inoculation on plant growth and solid soluble content (SSC) of the stem of A. potatorum plants under semi-controlled conditions and a randomized complete block design; three FLNFB (1) Burkholderia cepacia, (2)&nbsp;Flavobacterium sp., (3)&nbsp;Paenibacillus amylolyticus and a control (without FLNFB) were assessed in four blocks with 15 agave plants per block; each plant in the same block was randomly assigned to a different FLNFB. The plant growth variables assessed after 48&nbsp;weeks were: plant height (PH), plant rosette diameter (ROD), plant stem diameter (PSD), unfolded leaves number (ULN), root volume (RV), root density (RD), stem dry biomass (SDB), total dry biomass (TDB), leaf area (LA) and SSC (°Bx). An analysis of variance and Tukey’s multiple range test for means separation (P ≤ 0.05) revealed that with respect to the control, B. cepacia increased RV 322.2%; ULN 42.6%; and SSC 72.9%. P. amylolyticus increased SDB 317.1%. B. cepacia, Flavobacterium sp., and P. amylolyticus increased the PSD approximately 50.3%; ROD 48.6%; LA 127.2%; and PH 51.8%. Flavobacterium sp. increased TB 164.8%. These results suggest that the FLNFB promoted growth of A. potatorum plants, making this environmentally friendly and inexpensive technology a good alternative for agave production.</p> Martha Angélica Bautista-Cruz, Verónica Martínez-Gallegos Copyright (c) 2020 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Tue, 28 Jul 2020 22:59:57 +0000 Effect of biofertilizers and conservation agriculture in wheat production on Vertisol soil <p>This study performed two assays to analyze the effect of inoculating mycorrhizal fungi on wheat production during winter both by rotating crop and increasing fertilizer doses to implement agricultural conservation practices. The following treatments were established for the f irst assay: (1) wheat inoculation with mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae without fertilizer; (2) application of 200 units of N ha-1 without inoculation; (3) inoculation + 100 units of N ha-1; (4)&nbsp;application of 100 units of N ha-1 without inoculation; (5) inoculation + 150 units of N ha-1; (6)&nbsp;application of 150 units of N without inoculation. The second assay assessed the response of wheat production to the two preceding crop rotations: maize‑wheat (G-G) and bean-wheat (L-G) and four increasing nitrogen fertilization doses: 0, 100, 150, and 200 units ha-1. With the inoculation of G. mosseae + 75% of nitrogen fertilization, wheat production had the greatest grain yield (5.6 Mg ha-1) and was 36% greater than the control group with the application of only 100% fertilizer without inoculant. Wheat inoculation without nitrogen fertilizer had the lowest production (2.6 Mg ha-1). On the other hand, wheat production with L-G rotation had a better response (R2 = 0.72) at increasing N doses where the greatest grain yield was obtained with 4.7 Mg ha-1 and only 150 units of N ha-1, which corresponded to 1 Mg ha-1 more compared with the maximum wheat production obtained in the G-G rotation with 2000 units of N ha-1. The use of inoculated biofertilizers, such as mycorrhizal fungi or by the effect of crop rotation with legumes, such as bean, requires supplementary N dosage to boost wheat production; however, it is feasible to decrease nitrogen fertilizer dosage to 25%.</p> Aurelio Báez-Pérez, Agustín Limón-Ortega, César Eduardo Ramírez-Barrientos, Irma Agustina Ortega-Villalobos, Edgar Adrián Olivares-Arreola Copyright (c) 2020 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Tue, 28 Jul 2020 22:59:22 +0000 Morpho-productive response of bell pepper plants biofertilized with Pseudomonas putida and reduced dosage of synthetic fertilizers in greenhouse <p>Human populations generate high food consumption, so this situation causes an increase in the application of synthetic fertilizers that are expensive and contaminate the environment. Rhizosphere bacteria are an alternative to synthetic fertilizer application because they stimulate plant growth and productivity, do not contaminate the environment, and their application is low cost. Thus the objective of this study was to determine the inoculation effect of three rhizobacterial strains of Pseudomonas putida and the application of two synthetic fertilization concentrations on the morphological parameters and fruit yield in bell pepper plants variety ‘California Wonder’ in greenhouse conditions. The plants were inoculated with the rhizobacteria P. putida cataloged as FA-8, FA-56, and FA-60, individually and in combination; two concentrations of synthetic fertilization were applied at 100 and 75% to determine plant height, stem diameter, root length and volume, fresh and dry biomass, yield and total soluble solid content of fruit and bacterial population. The results indicated that bacteria and synthetic fertilization dosage increased all the morphological parameters and productivity of bell pepper. The use of P. putida as a bio-fertilizer can be important in the sustainable production of horticultural crops such as C. annuum.</p> Luis Guillermo Hernández-Montiel, Bernardo Murillo-Amador, César Josué Chiquito-Contreras, Cristina Elizabeth Zúñiga-Castañeda, Juan Ruiz-Ramírez, Roberto Gregorio Chiquito-Contreras Copyright (c) 2020 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Tue, 28 Jul 2020 22:58:47 +0000 Maize yield response to bio-inoculation and chemical fertilization reduction under field conditions <p>Soil microorganisms often play a strong ecological and economic role in agricultural production systems. In this study the agro-biological response to inoculation or co-inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), rhizobacteria (Azospirillum brasilense, Ab), and reduced dose of inorganic fertilizer (IF) on maize (Zea mays L.) crop was evaluated under f ield conditions. This study was conducted within the experimental f ield La Bandera in the municipality of Actopan, Veracruz, Mexico, property of the School of Agricultural Science, Universidad Veracruzana, Campus Xalapa (FCA-UV). The evaluated treatments were: T1: (Traditional management of the producer (control group), TM) with total inorganic fertilization (100% IF); T2: (inoculation of the AMF); T3: (inoculation of Ab); T4: (co-inoculation of AMF + Ab); T5: (inoculation of AMF + 50% IF); T6: (inoculation of Ab + 50% IF); and T7: (co-inoculation of AMF + Ab + 50% IF), analyzing plant height (cm), length and width of the flag leaf (cm), stem diameter (mm), arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization percentage, colony forming units (CFU) and total maize grain production (kg). These variables were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the post-hoc Fisher's Least Signif icant Difference (LSD) test with a signif icance level of 5% (α = 0.05) for comparison of means. The results indicated signif icant differences between the&nbsp;treatments (Fisher’s LSD, P ≤ 0.05) for height, flag leaf length and width with increments of 75.59, 75.43, and 28.68% in the AMF + Ab + 50% IF treatment compared to the control group. For stem diameter (44.73%) and grain weight (74.21%), the Ab + 50% IF treatment showed increased presence of CFU·mL-1 (198). The positive interactions between AMF and Ab had a higher percentage of mycorrhizal colonization (62.7%) compared to the other treatments. The best results were observed in the majority of the variables evaluated where these microorganisms interacted in reduced fertilization dose (AMF + Ab + 50% IF).</p> Ramón Zulueta-Rodríguez, Fernando Carlos Gómez-Merino, Isabel Alemán-Chávez, María del Carmen Núñez-Camargo, Liliana Lara-Capistrán Copyright (c) 2020 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Tue, 28 Jul 2020 22:58:15 +0000 Arbuscular mycorrhiza as a biofertilizer in production of coffee <p>In coffee plantations in southeastern Mexico, the chemical, physical and biological degradation of soils affects the production of plants. This situation economically harms the coffee growers, so it is common to place the neglect of their plantations where the cultivation tasks such as pruning and fertilization are costly. To solve the problem of fertilization, the application of arbuscular mycorrhizal inocula is recommended, its effectiveness is clear in vegetables and fruit trees. The response of two inocula (Rhizophagus aggregatus) and the consortium formed by the fungi Glomus claroides, Rhizophagus diaphanus and Paraglomus albidum (CMgrp) was evaluated in the coffee varieties garnica, catimor, caturra and catuaí, with the purpose of locating the best symbiosis plant-fungus. The variables height of the plant, dry matter, content of phosphorus in leaves, percentage of mycorrhizal colonization, percentage of mycorrhizal eff iciency, percentage of phosphorus absorbed by mycorrhization and the eff iciency index of mycorrhizae in the health of the plant were evaluated. (Em) The results showed that the CMgrp consortium generated the highest values and increases with respect to non-inoculated plants in the plant height and dry matter variables (177 and 1701% for garnica variety) and phosphorus content (650% in the catimor variety). The response of the plants to mycorrhization showed the best results in the garnica varieties (34.32% colonization percentage) and caturra (1670% mycorrhizal eff iciency and 1651% phosphorus absorbed by mycorrhization effect). The&nbsp;Em index&nbsp;revealed that the coffee plants inoculated with the CMgrp presented better health. It is recommended to use the CMgrp consortium as a biofertilizer in coffee plants, to ensure the success of the transplant, a situation that will represent an economic and time saving for the coffee grower.</p> Elizabeth Hernández-Acosta, Dora Trejo-Aguilar, Andrés Rivera-Fernández, Ronald Ferrera-Cerrato Copyright (c) 2020 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Tue, 28 Jul 2020 22:57:36 +0000 Trichoderma atroviride as a biocontrol agent of Fusarium head blight by reducing the inoculum of the pathogen in wheat straw <p>Fusarium head blight (FHB) is the principal disease affecting wheat worldwide, decreasing grain quality, and production. This disease is mainly caused by members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC), which have the capability to produce mycotoxins in the contaminated grains. The pathogen overwinters on crop residues (wheat straw). Under adequate climate conditions, the pathogen conidia or ascospores infect wheat flowers, which are the susceptible part of the plant. To minimize disease incidence, cultural practices and fungicide treatments are recommended, but none of them are effective by themselves. In that sense, biological control appears to be an alternative strategy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to isolate and select native Trichoderma&nbsp;spp. strains for FHB control in wheat. Sixteen isolates were identif ied at species level. All of them showed at least one characteristic that could be associated to their potential ability as biological control agents. An isolate identif ied as T. atroviride was selected according to its ability to inhibit F. graminearum perithecium development on wheat straw and produce enzymes associated to wheat straw degradation, which is the pathogen physical support.</p> Monica Cabrera, Gabriela Garmendia, Caterina Rufo, Silvia Pereyra, Silvana Vero Copyright (c) 2020 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Tue, 28 Jul 2020 22:57:00 +0000 Effect of humic acids, mycorrhiza, and chitosan on growth indicators of two tomato cultivars (Solanum lycopersicum L.) <p>Biostimulants are an alternative to the use of agrochemicals in agriculture. Thus the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of humic acids (HA), arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and chitosan (QS), on growth of two tomato cultivars (Solanum licopersicum L.). An experiment was established in semi-controlled conditions with eight treatments, resulting from the combination of HA, AMF and QS with the Floradade and Pomodoro cultivars and two water-treated controls. The assessed indicators were plant root and stem length, stem, leaf, and root fresh and dry biomass, plant biomass and leaf content of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium calcium, and magnesium. The results of the three biostimulants used for both cultivars showed that AMF achieved the greatest increase in stem diameter and length, in addition to root length with signif icant differences, over 50% higher than the control groups in plant, stem, leaf, and root biomass accumulation. The rest of the treatments also surpassed the control groups. Additionally, an increase in leaf nutrient content was observed with the exception of phosphorus. The application of biostimulants showed a signif icantly strong and positive linear relationship in most of the indicators evaluated (root and stem length, stem diameter, fresh and dry root, stem, and leaf biomass, with the exception of phosphorus content. The&nbsp;results showed that biostimulants improved nutrient intake by plants and leaf phosphorus content was not an adequate indicator to correlate plant growth.</p> Juan José Reyes-Pérez, Emmanuel Alexander Enríquez-Acosta, Miguel Ángel Ramírez-Arrebato, Aida Tania Rodríguez-Pedroso, Alejandro Falcón-Rodríguez Copyright (c) 2020 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Tue, 28 Jul 2020 22:56:30 +0000 Bioproducts in the growth and yield of Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Delicia 364 <p>Current food production systems require the use of alternatives with ecological and affordable approaches, among which the use of bioproducts generated by the action of microorganisms that act on plant nutrition, growth and development stands out. The objective of this work was to evaluate the response of Phaseolus vulgaris&nbsp;L. var. Delicia 364 to the application of bioproducts (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Spiruvins) in plastic pots with a volume of 44 L capacity. The bioproduct Azofert was used in this experiment. The experiment was conducted in the municipality of El&nbsp;Salvador, Guantanamo province, Cuba. The treatments were distributed in a completely randomized design: (T1) Azofert without AMF (control group); (T2) Azofert without AMF + 2 L ha-1 of Spiruvins; (T3) Azofert + Rhizophagus irregularis; (T4) Azofert + Glomus cubense; (T5) Azofert + Funneliformis mosseae; (T6) Azofert + Rhizophagus irregularis + 2 L ha-1 of Spiruvins; (T7) Azofert + Glomus cubense + 2 L ha-1 of Spiruvins; (T8) Azofert + Funneliformis mosseae + 2 L ha-1 of Spiruvins. Plant height, stem diameter, number of pods, number of grains per pod, weight of 100 grains and yield were evaluated. In addition, mycorrhizal functioning was evaluated by mycorrhizal colonization and visual density. The results obtained showed that the application of bioproducts (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Spiruvins) increased the growth and yield of the bean crop var. Delicia 364; in addition, with the combination Azofert + Rhizophagus irregularis + Spiruvins the highest yield was obtained with 2.11&nbsp;Mg&nbsp;ha-1, which represents 37.9% more than the national average.</p> Yonger Tamayo-Aguilar, Porfirio Juarez-Lopez, Wendy Capdevila-Bueno, José Lescaille-Acosta, Elein Terry-Alfonso Copyright (c) 2020 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Tue, 28 Jul 2020 22:55:59 +0000 Growth of ornamental sunflower in pot at field level by effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi <p>Sunflower popularity as an ornamental plant has increased dramatically in the last decade. The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) increased the diameter of the floral chapter and early flowering in the gerbera; however, this effect depends on the inoculum species of AMF and the host plant. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different AMF inoculums on plant growth of different sunflower ornamental varieties. A two factors random block experiment with six replicates in Zapopan at 2017 was established; AMF with f ive levels: Rhizophagus intraradices (Ri), Funneliformis mosseae (Fm), consortium Cerro del Metate (CM), Las Campesinas (LC) and without AMF; ornamental sunflower variety with four levels: belleza de otoño (BO), gigante simple amarillo (GSA), doble enana (DE) and doble gigante (DG). Seventy days after having established the experiment, growth variables and mycorrhizal colonization percentage were measured. Results showed that GSA-CM was superior in plant growth to other treatments (Tukey, P ≤ 0.05). The consortium CM of AMF stimulated GSA growth in comparison with respect to the non-inoculated by 31%. Nevertheless, the variety BO showed 60% growth decrement whenever inoculated with AMF in comparison with the control without AMF. Fm inoculum had the lowest mycorrhizal colonization percentage (28%), despite of this, it showed signif icant effects over ornamental sunflower varieties growth. These results suggest the wide diversity of responses, in terms of growth, depending on the variety of sunflower and the type of AMF.</p> Isabel Vital-Vilchis, Evangelina Esmeralda Quiñones-Aguilar, Laura Veronica Hernández-Cuevas, Gabriel Rincón-Enríquez Copyright (c) 2020 Terra Latinoamericana Tue, 28 Jul 2020 22:54:22 +0000 Agronomic response of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) to application of Bacillus subtilis and vermicompost in greenhouse <p>The use of agrochemicals in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivation has led to the search for fertilization alternatives, such as Bacillus subtilis and vermicompost, which are options to produce food without affecting the environment and human and animal health. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of incorporating Bacillus subtilis and vermicompost, individually or mixed, on the agronomic response of C. annuum L.) under greenhouse conditions. A completely randomized design with 15 replicates was used for each treatment where T1 = chemical fertilizer; T2 = B. subtilis; T3 = B. subtilis + chemical fertilizer; T4, T5, T6 = 280, 380, 570 g of vermicompost, respectively; T7, T8, T9 = B. subtilis + 280, 380, 570 g of vermicompost, respectively. At 90 days after sowing (DAS), the following variables were evaluated: height, stem diameter, number of leaves, buds, and flowers, leaf area, fruit production, and bacterial population (colony forming units, CFU). The sweet pepper plants with the highest dose of vermicompost (570 g) plus B. subtilis showed the greatest increase in all the variables evaluated, exceeding the plants with the chemical fertilizer only. The mixed application of B. subtilis + vermicompost can be an alternative for the production of C. annuum L. without having to use chemical fertilizers.</p> Liliana Lara-Capistrán, Ramón Zulueta-Rodríguez, Bernardo Murillo-Amador, Mirella Romero-Bastidas, Tomas Rivas-García, Luis Guillermo Hernández-Montiel Copyright (c) 2020 Terra Latinoamericana Tue, 28 Jul 2020 22:53:44 +0000 Effect of chitosan and Bacillus amilolyquefasciens on sorghum yield in the indigenous area “Mayos” in Sonora <p>Mexico currently ranks the fourth place in sorghum production worldwide. In Sonora State, this crop is one of the most productive. The Mayos, Amerindian people that live in the south of Sonora, Mexico have been promoting sustainable agricultural production systems. The application of bioderivatives of crustacean exoskeletons such as chitosan (QUI) as well as microorganisms that promote plant growth, and endomycorrhizal, symbiont, benef icial and antagonist microorganisms in some crops have shown to be an alternative in the process of germination and to improve crop yields. However, studies that assess the effect of bioderivative protocols such as QUI and microbial supplies are limited for the sorghum grain. Therefore, objective of our research was to evaluate sorghum grain, the effect of chitosan (100 and 50%), and a microbial complex (combined with QUI and individual forms) vs traditional fertilization in the Mayo indigenous region, Basconcobe, Etchojoa, Sonora, in the phenological induction, yield and protein quality of the grain. A randomized experimental block design was conducted with seven treatments and f ive repetitions. The following response variables were measured: germination rate, total chlorophyll, plant height during physiological maturity, panicle length, yield ha-1 and grain protein. The results indicated that in terms of yield and protein quality of sorghum grain, the most eff icient treatment (with P &lt; 0.05) consisted of 100% QUI + microbial consortium using 50% of regional fertilization. These results indicate that it is possible to employ chitosan as a biofertilizer of marine origin combined with a microbial fertilizer in a sorghum production system.</p> Ramón Jaime Holguin-Peña, Juan Manuel Vargas-López, Guadalupe Amanda López-Ahumada, Francisco Rodríguez-Félix, Carlos Gabriel Borbón-Morales, Edgar Omar Rueda-Puente Copyright (c) 2020 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Tue, 28 Jul 2020 22:53:05 +0000 Evaluation of the effect of viticulture biofungicide yeasts on the seed germination and growth of lettuce seedlings (Lactuca sativa L.) in vitro. Phytotoxicity analysis <p>Botrytis cinerea can affect lettuce under both greenhouse and f ield conditions. Vitiviniculture yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe showed activity against B. cinerea isolated from lettuce, in vitro. However, it is unknown whether these yeasts affect seed germination and/or growth of lettuce seedlings. Objective: To evaluate the effect of&nbsp;vitiviniculture yeasts on seed germination and growth of seedlings emerging from lettuce (L. sativa), in vitro. The yeasts were inoculated on lettuce seeds incubated in plastic trays. At 4 and 7 days, the % of germinated seeds, length of radicle, hypocotyl and cotyledons were evaluated. The vigor index (IV) (7 days) was also evaluated. Results: After 4 days, four yeasts BSchp67, BSc92, BSc121 and BSc203 signif icantly promoted the germination of lettuce seeds compared to the control. Of these yeasts, two increased the cotyledon length. At 7 days, six yeasts BSc16, BSc61, BSchp67, BSc92, BSc121 and BSc203 increased the % of germinated seeds and the hypocotyl length. At 4 and 7 days none of the yeasts assayed signif icantly increased the radicle length. The seedlings pre-inoculated with the wine yeasts presented an IV similar to the control, except the seedlings inoculated with BSc81, where the IV was smaller. Conclusions: The effect of yeasts on the lettuce germination and growth was variable. At the end of the assay, yeasts BSc5, BSc47, BSc68, BSc49, BSc56 and BSc92 did not negatively affect the germination rate, vegetative growth (radicle, hypocotyl, cotyledons), nor the vigor of the lettuce seedlings, therefore they could be used as possible biocontrol agents. The last three strains mentioned above promoted hypocotyl growth (day 7). These data suggest the possibility of using these yeasts as biofungicides and as possible plant growth promoters (dual function).</p> Marcos Gabriel Lencinas, Virginia Mercedes Pesce, Cintia Belen Flores, Fabio Vazquez, Maria Cristina Nally Copyright (c) 2020 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA Tue, 28 Jul 2020 22:52:27 +0000