Soil straw incorporation, seed zinc inoculation and nitrogen fertilization on wheat grown under soil saline conditions
In regions with soil salinity problems, continuous improvement of physical and chemical soil properties, seed germination improvement, as well as efficient fertilization management should aid in increasing crop yield. Thus, the objective of this study is to assess the effects of soil straw incorporation (SI) (0 and 5000 kg ha‑1), seed with zinc (Zn) inoculation (0 and 100 mg kg‑1 of Zn), and nitrogen (N) fertilization (0, 115, 230 and 460 kg ha-1) on wheat grown under saline soil conditions. The crop was established during the 2016-2017 and 2017-2018 winter-spring growing seasons. The experimental design was a three-way factorial treatment arranged under a completely randomized block design with four replicates. The response variables measured were growth, crop nutrition, and yield, as well as soil residual effects of treatments. The N × SI interaction affected the growth, nitrates on cellular extract of stem, and yield of wheat. Rate of 460 kg N ha-1 produced the highest number of spikes m-2 and 115 kg N ha-1 the highest grain weight. Harvest index was higher with SI but decreased when the seed was inoculated with Zn. Soil salinity reduced with SI, whereas Zn × SI interaction modified soil pH, nitrates, phosphates, and soil organic matter. The organic matter in soil was affected by N × SI interaction. In conclusion, crop productivity was improved by SI because essential soil properties were modified by Zn seed inoculation, which increased crop growth and N maximized wheat yield.