REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA <h4><span style="float: right; color: #111111; font-family: 'helvetica neue',helvetica,arial,verdana,sans-serif; font-size: 14.4px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: 18.72px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px; display: inline ! important; background-color: #ffffff;">ISSN Electrónico 2395 - 8030.</span></h4> Mexican Society of Soil Science, C.A. en-US REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2395-8030 Ef fect of Nitrate: Ammonium Ratio in Solanum nigrescens Mart. & Gal. <p><span data-sheets-formula-bar-text-style="font-size:16px;color:#000000;font-weight:normal;text-decoration:none;font-family:'Times New Roman';font-style:normal;text-decoration-skip-ink:none;">The present research was carried out from January to December 2022 in a greenhouse of the Colegio de Posgraduados (CP), Campus Montecillo, located in the municipality of Texcoco, Mexico, with the objective of investigating the response of slender nightshade (Solanum nigrescens Mart. &amp; Gal.) to four levels of nitrate:ammonium relationship (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, and 25:75) regarding fruit yield and agronomical and physiological responses. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four treatments and nine replications. Each experimental unit consisted of a plant in a 40 × 40 cm plastic bag, with 13 L of red porous volcano gravel as substrate. Data collection of the morphological and physiological variables were carried out from germination to harvest. Training pruning was performed at 50&nbsp;days af ter transplant. Data were analyzed in agronomic, nutritional and fruit quality terms. Biomass height, yield, fresh and dry weight, total soluble solids, chemical analysis of leaf tissue, analysis of specific ions in leaf cell extract and fruit set of nightshade, and total sugar concentration in ripe fruit were evaluated. With 75:25 ratio, the highest values were obtained in biomass, yield and significant results in the concentration of macro and micronutrients in the leaf. In total sugars in fruit, 50:50 ratio was obtained in the highest concentration.</span></p> Ángel Osvaldo Alcántara-Nazario Manuel Sandoval-Villa Gabriel Alcántar-González Antonio García-Esteva María Guadalupe Peralta-Sánchez Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1786 Soil Quality Index for Agricultural Systems in the Tropical Dry <p><span data-sheets-formula-bar-text-style="font-size:16px;color:#000000;font-weight:normal;text-decoration:none;font-family:'Times New Roman';font-style:normal;text-decoration-skip-ink:none;">In recent decades, food growing demand associated with population growth has led to the transformation of forested areas or natural ecosystems into land for agricultural production. The use of soil quality indices allows a better understanding of soil degradation or improvement level under different agricultural systems, which favors decision-making and the selection of sustainable management practices. Thus, the objective of this research is to evaluate soil quality indices (ICS) in different agricultural systems, as a decision-making strategy for soil conservation and rehabilitation in the Colombian Caribbean region. Four land use systems were selected in the departments of Córdoba, Bolívar, Sucre, Cesar, and Magdalena: commercial forestry (Forestry), traditional livestock pasture (Pr), Agroforestry with Cocoa (SAF) and silvopastoral (SSP) systems. In each land use, the systems were evaluated with soil physical, chemical, and biological variables to calculate ICS. The implementation of SSP increased organic matter accumulation and cation exchange capacity (CEC) in the range from 25 to 29% more than forest monoculture and Pr systems. Soil biological diversity was higher within systems associated with tree species. CIC was the most relevant soil indicator in the soil index construction with a contribution from 34.7 to 41.2% of the ICS total value. The minimum set of selected data was made up of CEC, mechanical resistance to compaction, sand percentage (A), order Isoptera, pH and phosphorus content. The land use system with the highest ICS was SAF (0.77), followed by SSP (0.66). The inclusion of tree species within production systems improves soil quality, increasing soil carbon sequestration by more than 19% within SSP.</span></p> José Luis Contreras-Santos Judith Martinez-Atencia José Luis Rodriguez-Vitola Wilson Barragán-Hernandez Jeyson Garrido-Pineda Cindy Katherine Falla-Guzman Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1694 Evaluation of Wastewater Coagulation/Flocculation with Chitosan from Shrimp Exoskeletons Waste and Aluminum Sulfate <p>Intensive use of water, growing cities, and lack of wastewater treatment are some factors increasing hydric stress worldwide. Coagulation/flocculation is one of the preferred treatments for wastewater. However, aluminum salts are traditionally used in this process. This coagulant has a high environmental footprint and residual aluminum in wastewater is a public health concern. The preparation and use of chitosan as a coagulant aid in coagulation/flocculation with aluminum sulfate were investigated. The ef fect of the order of addition of coagulants (aluminum sulfate followed by chitosan, or chitosan followed by aluminum sulfate), dose of the coagulants, pH, and slow mixing velocity for flocculation were studied. It was found that the removal of total suspended solids (TSS) with aluminum sulfate was relatively unaf fected by pH (aluminum sulfate dose of 100 mg L-1 at pH of 5 units achieved 94% removal of TSS and at pH of 8.2 units 89% removal of TSS), whereas with chitosan was highly af fected (chitosan dose of 180 mg L-1 at pH of 4 units achieved 96% removal of TSS and at pH of 8.2 units 25% removal of TSS). In the coagulation/flocculation experiments where both coagulants were used, it was found that the order of coagulant addition and pH of wastewater have a statistically significant ef fect (P-value &lt; 0.05) on the removal of TSS. Higher removal of TSS was achieved when aluminum sulfate was added followed by chitosan at a wastewater pH of 5 units. Chitosan can be ef fectively used to reduce the use of aluminum salts in wastewater treatment. However, it is necessary to optimize the preparation of this coagulant and investigate other factors, such as variation in the wastewater quality, that can af fect the robustness of the process.</p> Israel Labastida-Núñez Maribel Velasco-Pérez Elia Piedad Pablo-Reyes Abelardo González-Aragón Margarita Beltrán-Villavicencio Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1743 Biofertilizer and its Correlation Between Productive and Quality Parameters in Key Lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) <p>Key lime is a crop of high demand and importance in the socioeconomic development of Peru, using mostly inorganic fertilizers that generate constant increases in production costs. Therefore, it becomes necessary to use of organic and innocuous alternatives for its production. To assess the effect of different doses of biol or biofertilizer, and its correlation with productive and quality parameters in the cultivation of Key lime, four treatments were evaluated: T0 (control: conventional management), T1&nbsp;(Biol&nbsp;10%), T2 (Biol 20%) and T3 (Biol 30%) applied every 15 days, evaluating the following parameters: 1) productive parameters: fruit diameter (FD), peel thickness (PT), fruit weight (FW), yield per ha (YHa) and 2) quality parameters: acidity (AD), percentage of soluble solids (PSS), pH, lemon juice (LJ). Correlation analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), an ANOVA, and the Benefit/Cost ratio were performed. In the PCA,<br>two components were obtained: C1 (71.40%) and C2 (11.80%) explaining 83.20% of the variability. C1 explained the greatest variability and grouped variables: G-I (LJ, AD), G-II (FD, PT, PSS) and GIII (FW, YHa). The treatments Biol 10%, 20%, 30% presented the best results in LJ and AD (G-I) (P &lt; 0.05). The variables FD, PT, PSS and pH (G-II) did not show differences among treatments, and the FW and YHa in T2 (Biol 20%) exhibited the highest values; likewise, it was the most profitable <br>(B/C=3.84). Biofertilizer is an alternative to reduce the use of synthetic fertilizers and production costs. Biofertilizer at 20% was more profitable and improved the evaluated variables.</p> Roger Chanduvi-García María Alejandra Sandoval-Panta Ricardo Peña-Castillo Javier Javier Alva L. Á. Álvarez Marcos Victoriano Quiroz-Calderón Carlos Granda-Wong René Aguilar-Anccota Miguel Galecio-Julca Davies Arturo Morales-Pizarro Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1685 Biofortification with Silicon in the Development and Yield of Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in a Controlled Environment <p>There is currently a high demand in world markets for peppers (Capsicum&nbsp;annuum), however, nutritional and pathogenic problems reduce its production. The use of silicon is an alternative to improve the phytosanitary and productive characteristics of the pepper crop. In this context, our objective was to evaluate the effect of silicon on crop growth and yield under controlled conditions. The study was carried out in the greenhouse of the Faculty of Livestock and Biological Sciences or Agricultural and Forestry "La María". The experimental approach was a completely randomized design (CRD) with different concentrations of silicon: T1: 10 g, T2: 12 g and <br>T3: 14 g plant-1 respectively, T4: Farmer control, and T5: Absolute control. Plant height was evaluated during four consecutive weeks. After 90 days of crop, the number and weight of productive fruits were evaluated. Our results show that the application of 10 g of silicon plant-1 increased plant growth by 12 cm compared to the absolute control and agricultural yield with average values of 24 662 kg ha-1, compared with the rest of the treatments.</p> Juan José Reyes-Pérez Sergio Rodríguez-Rodríguez Juan Antonio Torres-Rodríguez Luis Tarquino Llerena-Ramos Luis Guillermo Hernández-Montiel Francisco Higinio Ruiz-Espinoza Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1749 Harvest Estimation of Forage Corn (Zea mays L.) by Means of Spectral Indices Derived from LANDSAT-8 and SENTINEL-2 <p>Crop yield estimation based on spectral indices is crucial for decision-making in agricultural activities; however, questions regarding their usefulness persist. The aims of our research were: 1) to relate the radiative properties of forage corn (FC) and biomass production using LANDSAT-8 and SENTINEL-2 images; and 2) to select the best-performing vegetation index (VI) to model FC yield under similar conditions. The study was conducted along the PV-2019 cycle with morphological measurements at different FC growth stages and with destructive random sampling at 72 dds to determine biomass magnitude in the laboratory. Biomass data were then related to reflectance values and VI’s from LANDSAT-8 and SENTINEL-2 to estimate yield through multiple linear regression. Eight VI’s (NDVI, TVI, TTVI, RDVI, RVI, RATIO, SAVI, MSAVI2) were evaluated through cross-evaluations based on key statistics. The results of multiple regression analysis indicated that the best model (R2 = 0.66) was obtained with SENTINEL-2 image data from bands 3 (α3 = 0.54-0.57 µm) and 8 (α8= 0.78-0.90 µm) with highly significant βi estimators (P &lt; 0.05). Moreover, RDVI showed the best performance due to a good spatial relationship between raster digital values and green biomass yield produced with an association of 75.41%, the statistical indicators were R2= 0.75 and CME =17. Yield at 72 dds was predicted both with Multiple Regression Models and VI’s in a range of 10.7 - 57.01 Mg ha-1. In conclusion, SENTINEL-2 outperformed LANDSAT-8 as a free tool for crop assessment and biomass estimation due to its better spatial and temporal resolution.</p> Bonifacio Cano-Mejía Ricardo D. Valdez-Cepeda Armando López-Santos Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1696 Environmental Covariates that Define the Main Soil Groups in Mexico <p>The variability of soils depends on the interaction of environmental covariates involved in their formation. In Mexico, 25 out of the 32 soil groups included in the World Reference Base (WRB) are recorded. This study identified the importance order of eleven environmental covariates that using the non-parametric model based on a supervised machine learning algorithm called random forest, which characterize 19 soil groups covering 99.2% of the national territory. The covariates included were, curvature, drainage density, distance to the nearest stream, geology, aridity index, topographic humidity index, topographic position index, NDVI, radiation, roughness, and temperature. The results showed 100 classification trees, with accuracy of 81.83% of the random forest model and 0.80 of Kappa, which is considered as very good. The mean decrease accuracy, showed that, the five most important covariates for classifying the 19 analyzed soil groups are topographic position index, aridity index, curvature, radiation, and drainage density.</p> Cristina Bonilla-Gaviño Demetrio S. Fernández-Reynoso Lenom Cajuste-Bontemp Carlos Ramírez-Ayala Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-10-06 2023-10-06 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.974 Growth and Ef ficiency in the Use of Nutrients of Pinus cooperi C. E. Blanco Seedlings Produced in Nurseries with a Controlled Release Fertilizer <p>Fertilization is one of the most important and costly activities in forested plant production in container. The application of controlled release fertilizers (CRF) allows reducing costs since they are incorporated in the substrate in a single event. However, the optimum dosage should be defined based on the nutritional needs of each species. Thus, the objective of the present study is to determine the ef fect of three CRF doses on morphological growth and in nitrogen use ef ficiency (NUE) in Pinus cooperi C. E. Blanco plants in the nursery. Multicote 8® [18-6-12 of nitrogen&nbsp;(N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K)] was used as fertilizer in three doses: 4, 6 and 8&nbsp;g&nbsp;L-1 of substrate. At 49 weeks af ter sowing, the following evaluations were performed: stem base diameter, height, aerial and root dry weight and their relationship. A leaf analysis of N, P and K was performed to determine the nutritional status of the plants by a vector analysis and estimate the NUE. The treatments were analyzed under a completely randomized design with an analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s means test. The individuals fertilized with the 6 and 8&nbsp;g&nbsp;L-1 dosage had better morphological attributes. The shoot-to-root ratio maintained the desirable values in all the treatments. The N, P, and K contents were higher with the 6 and 8 g L-1 doses, although NUE increased as the CRF dose decreased. The vector nomograms indicated that a high dosage does not have the ef fect on growth, actually toxicity may exist due to excessive fertilization. In conclusion, the 6 g L-1 CRF dose favors P. cooperi growth and nutrition in the nursery.</p> Laura Elena Martínez-Nevárez José Ángel Prieto-Ruíz José Ángel Sigala-Rodríguez José Leonardo García-Rodríguez Magdalena Martínez-Reyes Artemio Carrillo-Parra Pedro Antonio Domínguez-Calleros Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1707 Nitrogen Nanocomposite as a Slow-Release Fertilizer in Soil Columns with Lettuce Plants <p>The continuous use of excessive nitrogenous fertilizers generates environmental risks by increasing nitrate accumulation, volatilization and leaching in soil, which causes losses and low ef ficiencies in the use of nitrogen (N). The objective of the present study is to evaluate the application of nitrogenous nanocomposites (NCN) as a slow-release fertilizer (SRF) in soil and its ef fect on growth of the lettuce crop. The NCN was prepared by sorption of a cationic surfactant on a bentonite clay. The study was performed in soil columns; the evaluated treatments were ratios of NCN and conventional fertilizer (FC) 25/0, 50/0, 75/0 and 100/0, 0/100, 25/75, 50/50 and 75/25. The variables evaluated were: fresh weight, dry biomass, leaf area, electrical conductivity, NO3- concentration in leachate and leaf, soil plant analysis development (SPAD) and normalized dif ference vegetation index (NDVI) units, as well as NCN release in deionized water. The results obtained indicate that the NCN treatments equaled the control af ter 40 days except for the 25/0 treatment that reduced the fresh weight variables by 20% and leaf area by 18% with respect to the 0/100 control. The SPAD and NVDI values did not have significant dif ferences between treatments. The NCN/FC 0/100, 50/50 and 75/25 ratios increased nitrate concentration in leaves by 19%. The 100/0 treatment increased total dry biomass with 48%, 87% root volume and 73% root dry biomass. The results of the release in deionized water confirmed that NCN gradually releases nitrates and in higher amounts than those calculated. Finally, to conclude the nanocomposite material has the potential to be used as a slow-release fertilizer when growth increases. Therefore, nanocomposites could be an alternative to reduce the use of conventional fertilizers and nitrogen losses in soil.</p> Oscar Iván Guillén-Castillo Ángel Natanael Rojas-Velázquez Jorge Alonso Alcalá-Jáuregui Catarina Loredo-Osti Hugo Magdaleno Ramírez-Tobías Vincenzo Bertolini Juan Carlos Rodríguez Ortiz Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1712 Soil loss and accumulation due to wind erosion north of Zacatecas <p><span data-sheets-formula-bar-text-style="font-size:16px;color:#000000;font-weight:normal;text-decoration:none;font-family:'Times New Roman';font-style:normal;text-decoration-skip-ink:none;">The continuous changes in the use of soil for agricultural and livestock activities, as well the geographical location on sites af fected by continuous wind currents, have caused changes in soil characteristics in a period of 40 years. To identify such changes, this study was performed in the north of the state of Zacatecas. The results of soil from 300 samples obtained in the laboratory analysis in 1976 were compared against an equal number of samples obtained in 2016. “Raster” images were generated by georeferencing the sampling sites and interpolating with “kriging”. The coinciding determinations between databases showed the dif ferences between them by overlapping both images. The wind erosion was estimated and the levels of erosion associated with the sites where the changes occurred. The image analysis shows a matching area where sand content and soil pH increased. Such surface represents 401 907 ha of 2 118 000 ha covered by the images, where calcium has decreased in 98% of the surface, as well as potassium (59%), organic matter (58%), magnesium (49%) and sodium (35%) in 40 years, identifying areas of accumulation and soil loss associated with values of wind erosion. The prevailing SW winds that cause wind erosion were identified with values from 8 to 32 Mg ha-1 in 100 209 ha of accumulation and 233 587 ha of losses in 40 years. Of the total identified, 199 753&nbsp;ha are agricultural areas and 202 154 are for livestock use. The identification of areas should help define plans and public policies for technological intervention.</span></p> Francisco Guadalupe Echavarria-Chairez Miguel Nasyib Alvarado-Sabag Alfonso Serna-Perez Guillermo Medina-Garcia José Israel Casas-Flores Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1649 Ecohydrological catchment functioning with secondary transfer works <p>Moving water from one catchment to the other implies hydraulic works, such as water transfers, which together with the associated infrastructure have af fected environmental and social factors, among others. Thus, the present study evaluates the ef fects of water transfers on structure and ecohydrological functioning in La Muñeca catchment, located in the Municipality of Tierra Nueva, San Luis Potosí. Landscape structure characteristics were measured by 50 m landscape function analysis (LFA); the transects are oriented downslope, where patches with dense, intermediate, and low land cover (inter-patches) were identified. A land cover map was generated using a regression model. Average run-of f and final infiltration rates were determined from rainfall simulations in patches and inter-patches and mapped to model the spatial distribution of run-of f accumulation. The regression model used to map ground cover was significant (P &lt; 0.0001). High run-of f was generated towards the western part of the catchment as ground cover was low. In contrast, the eastern part of the study area had the highest accumulation of run-of f and sediment because of a higher proportion of dense cover patches. The results show the feasibility of using landscape metrics, rainfall simulations, and spatial modeling to evaluate ecohydrological functioning and thus determine run-of f accumulation at various landscape scales.</p> Elda Barbosa-Briones Francisco Javier Peña-de Paz Carlos Alfonso Muñoz-Robles Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-07-31 2023-07-31 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1678 Relationships between vascular plant and functional types richness: area-richness and species-functional types richness models <p>The species richness-area relationship is considered one of the general laws in ecology. Through the richness of functional types, the scope of species richness is extended toward approaches to assess the functional redundancy of vegetation in vascular plants. The objective of the research was to develop and evaluate a model of the relationship richness-area and richness-species and functional types. For the richness-area relationship, many empirical models have been proposed in the literature, where the potential and the logarithmic stand out. These models, in addition to a second-order polynomial model, can be used to define the species (S) and functional types (Sg) richness relationship. The authors proposed model is based on the kinetics of order n, where the logarithmic and potential models are particular cases. To analyze the statistical adjustments of the considered models, a database of the related species richness and functional types richness was used in relation to the sampling area (A). The results of the application of non-linear regressions show that the kinetic model of order n has the best statistical adjustment, although the potential and logarithmic models are considered viable.</p> Fernando Paz-Pellat Alma Velázquez-Rodríguez Cristóbal Sánchez-Sánchez Martín A. Bolaños-González Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-07-28 2023-07-28 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1614 Remediation of soils contaminated with hydrocarbons using humic substances from vermicompost <p>Bioremediation with humic substances is one of the recent and promising techniques for the restoration of soils contaminated by hydrocarbons, but little information is available on its behavior in dif ferent types of soil. For these reasons, this research aimed to evaluate the removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons (HTP) in three types of soil with dif ferent textures (S1, S2 and S3) and treated with organic vermicompost amendments (cocoa husks, Theobroma cacao; rice, Oriza sativa; sugarcane bagasse, Saccharum of ficinarum; cow manure) and commercial humic substances (potassium humate). A randomized multifactorial experimental design (3 × 3 × 2) was proposed, which consisted of the type of soil, organic amendment (without vermicompost, with organic vermicompost, commercial humic substances) and microbial load (with microorganisms, without microorganisms). The results were analyzed using the ANOVA-Tukey tests in the Statgraphics CenturionTM V.18 program (α = 0.05) in order to evaluate significant dif ferences between treatments. The results show that S2 with the addition of organic matter had the highest removal (86% of HTP) af ter 60 days of incubation, compared to the treatment with commercial humic substances, which are related to the low bioavailability of the microorganisms. This behavior was also observed in S3 with a TPH percentage removal of 77.52 and 63.4% for S1. Finally, the cell growth rate was better in S2 with commercial humic substances. An average growth of 94 × 104 CFU g-1 of soil was obtained during the 60 days of evaluation of the experiment, and a maximum of 98×105 CFU g-1 of soil in the 45 days of treatment. To conclude, the use of vermicompost is adequate for clayey soils, since the degradation rates are higher in them. In addition, they represent a cheaper alternative to synthetic treatments and revaluation of organic waste.</p> Marcia E. Ojeda-Morales Yolanda Córdova-Bautista Juan G. Álvarez-Ramírez José de los S. López-Lázaro Gabriel Martínez-Pereyra Carlos M. Morales-Bautista Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-07-28 2023-07-28 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1656 Foliar fertilization with ZnO nanoparticles and its ef fect on production, biophysical and nutraceutical quality of pecan nuts (Carya illinoinensis) <p>Pecan tree is one of the most important crops in the Comarca Lagunera. Zinc (Zn) deficiency is one of the main problems that limit its productivity. Nanotechnology includes nutrimental materials, which may substitute conventional fertilizers with diverse ef fects on yield, and biophysical and nutraceutical quality in fruits. The ef fects of foliar application of ZnO nanoparticles on pecan trees (Western variety) were evaluated through the following treatments: control, 4000 (ZnSO4), 2000 (nps ZnO), 4000 (nps ZnO) mg L-1. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replications. Variables evaluated in fruit and tree were the following: yield, number of nuts kg-1, length and width of the nut, concentration of Zn in leaflets, fatty acids, crude protein, percentage of fat and moisture. A significant dif ference was observed in yield and Zn level in the leaflets, where the best treatment was 4000 mg L-1 of ZnO nanoparticles, while for length of fruit a significant dif ference was observed, being the 4000 mg L-1 of ZnSO4 treatment the lowest value. About nutraceutical variables, the content of fatty acids evaluated by the content of saturated fats (C16:0 and C18:0) showed highly significant changes, being the treatment with the dose of 4000 mg L-1 of nanoparticles the one with the highest percentage. Unsaturated fatty acids (C18:1 and C18:3) showed significant dif ferences, where the treatments evaluated with nanoparticles were the ones with a lower percentage. Protein content also showed highly significant dif ferences, being the control treatment and the chemical based on ZnSO4 the higher treatments. Nanoparticles can be used to improve yield and supply Zn content to the crop, but fruit quality is af fected from a nutritional point of view.</p> Karla Lucero Estrada-Arellano Cirilo Vázquez-Vázquez Rebeca Betancourt-Galindo María Dolores Muy-Rangel Luis Manuel Valenzuela-Núñez José Luis García-Hernández Miguel Ángel Gallegos-Robles Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-07-28 2023-07-28 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1585 Phenotypic plasticity of Anacardium occidentale L. seedlings exposed to salt stress based on physiological indicators <p>The study of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) response to salt stress from physiological indicators in genotypes contributes to the knowledge of the adaptive mechanisms of this species to stressful conditions. The objective of our research was to analyze the phenotypic plasticity and variation in indicators related to photosynthesis in two genotypes (red and yellow) of Anacardium occidentale L., during the seedling stage under greenhouse conditions. The ef fect of five salinity levels (0.02 dS m-1, 5 dS m-1, 10 dS m-1, 15 dS m-1 and 20 dS m-1) on characters associated with photosynthesis, gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence was evaluated. Phenotypic plasticity in response to salt stress was calculated for the indicators evaluated through the phenotypic plasticity index. The red variety showed the greatest ef fects of salt stress on photosynthetic rate, transpiration, sub-stomatal CO2, Fm, Fv, Fv/Fm, Fv/Fo, and Pi abs. The significant dif ferences found in phenotypic plasticity showed higher values in the red variety in most of the indicators evaluated. A negative ef fect of salinity at the seedling stage on indicators related to photosynthesis, gas exchange, and chlorophyll fluorescence was detected, as well as significant dif ferences between genotypes according to the indicators evaluated and the levels of phenotypic plasticity. Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were the indicators that showed the highest values of phenotypic plasticity.</p> Jeiner Medina-Leyva Bettina Eichler-Löbermann Raúl Campos-Posada Gloria Campos-Posada Raúl Carlos López-Sánchez Adalberto Benavides-Mendoza Luis Alfredo Rodríguez-Larramendi Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1556 Chemical fertilization and inoculation with Azospirillum and mycorrhizal fungi in tomato crop under greenhouse conditions <p>Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is one of the most important crops in the Mexican horticultural sector; currently, its production is based on the excessive use of chemical fertilizers. In 2016, an experiment was established under greenhouse conditions in order to evaluate the response in yield and fruit quality of Cid and Ramses indeterminate growth tomato hybrids to inoculation with Azospirillum sp., arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and dif ferent concentrations of nutrient solution in a hydroponic system. The experimental design was a 4*4*2 factorial in randomized blocks, with five repetitions and 3.5 plants m-2. The factors evaluated were: four levels of Steiner nutrient solution (100, 75, 50 and 25%), four levels of inoculation (without inoculation –Control–, Azospirillum –Azo–, AMF and coinoculation Azospirillum/AMF –AzAMF–) and the hybrids (HIB) Cid and Ramses. The variables evaluated were; yield (kg m-2), number of fruits (NFRU), average fruit weight (PPROF) in g, firmness (FIR) in kg m-2, total soluble solids (TSS) in °Brix, longitudinal diameter (DLONG) in mm and equatorial diameter (DECU) in mm. The results show that the 50% nutrient solution presented the highest yield (11.83 kg m-2). The inoculation with AzAMF induced the highest values of TSS (4.16 °Brix), while AMF, AzAMF and Azo presented firmer fruits with 3.1375 kg m-2), 3.0875 kg m-2) and 3.0825 kg m-2, respectively. The 100% nutrient solution with HMA and AzAMF showed the highest firmness values, while the best PPROF was detected with the 50% nutrient solution and Azo (101.56 g). The PSOLN by HIB interaction presented showed dif ferences in SST and NFRU. The interaction PSOLN, inoculation and hybrid exhibited significant ef fects on firmness quality, TSS and DECU. The concentration of the nutrient solution for tomato production can be reduced by 50 per cent.</p> Gustavo Adolfo Sánchez-Hernández Ernesto Aceves-Ruiz Angélica Aparicio-Juárez Juan de Dios Guerrero-Rodríguez José Isabel Olvera-Hernández José Hilario Hernández-Salgado Norma Marcela Álvarez-Calderon Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.991 Temporary dynamics of the change of land use and vegetation in the Juluapan watershed in the state of Colima <p>The study of the dynamic processes of the change of land use and vegetation is essential given the trends in the degradation processes of ecosystems. The Juluapan basin exhibits processes of change of land use and vegetation for more than 50 years, therefore, the objective of our study was to analyze the changes in land and vegetation use over time for the periods 1971 to 2010 and 2010 to 2018, with aerial and satellite images using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The results obtained for the period of 1971-2010 show the loss of 752 hectares of shrub vegetation that represents 13.3% of the total area. For the 2010-2018 period, a loss of 202 hectares was estimated, with a deforested area of 3.6%. The exchange rate for tree vegetation of the 1971-2010 period was defined with -1.47% and for the 2010-2018 period with a -2.03%. The scenarios of change of land use and vegetation presented in this study will allow the development of actions in favor of soil resource planning related to land use ordinance at the local level, as well as the execution of programs that reduce the impact on natural resources and promote the rational use of ecosystems in this region.</p> Demetrio Meza-Rodríguez José Luis Olguín-López Shatya Devi Quintero-Gradilla Enrique Valente Sánchez-Rodríguez Víctor Manuel Villalvazo-López Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1317 Application of compost tea, co-inoculation and inorganic fertilization on Swiss chard plants <p>Swiss chard is a horticultural crop with a highly nutritious value. These crops’ production required nutrients, which can be provided through mineral nutrient solutions or biofertilizers. Biofertilizers are products that contain beneficial microorganisms that improve soil quality and that promote plant growth. Additionally, these microorganisms carry out nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization. The present work assessed the application of compost tea, co-inoculation (Azospirillum and Glomus), and inorganic fertilizer over the growth (roots, stem, and leaves) and nutrient content in Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. Forhook Giant) plants. The present work was carried out in a greenhouse using a randomized complete block design. Swiss chard plants treated with compost tea + inorganic fertilization (CTIF) accumulated more root and stem dry weight (4.06 and 8.10 g respectively), and, on the other hand, the leaf dry weight increased under three treatments: inorganic fertilization (IF), compost tea + co-inoculation (CTCi) and CTIF (12.5, 9.22 and 10.5 g respectively). Leaf area was greater in the IF and CTIF treatments. In Control (C) P and Mg content were higher; CTCi treatment increased the N, K, and Mn content; the co-inoculation (Ci) treatment increased Cu content as well as CTIF treatment increased the Ca, Fe, Zn, and B contents and in a lesser extent also the P, Mg, Cu, and Mn contents. The biomass partitioning coef ficient indicates that in six samples (from a total of seven samples), most of the photosynthates (PS) were used by the plants to form new leaves or to increase the size of the leaves. If an alternative method of fertilization is desired, it is recommended that a combination of biofertilizer and inorganic fertilization should be used, such as, the combination of compost tea and mineral solution that increased the production and the concentration of nutrients in the Swiss chard crop.</p> José Antonio Rodríguez-de la Garza Claudia Nayeli Guerra-Guerra Libia Iris Trejo-Téllez Daniela Alvarado-Camarillo Laura María González-Méndez Alonso Méndez-López Silvia Yudith Martínez-Amador Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-05-31 2023-05-31 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1448 Ef fect of rhizobacteria isolated from Suaeda sp. in the growth of Arabidopsis thaliana and Solanum lycopersicum L. (Sahariana) <p>The rhizosphere of the great diversity of plants is a complex ecosystem that houses thousands of rhizobacteria that promote plant growth. In the current investigation, three bacteria were isolated from the root of Suaeda sp., which were evaluated to determine the ef fect of their inoculation on Arabidopsis thaliana at distances of 2 and 5 cm and in divided boxes. In the 2 cm test, we noticed that Endo10(7) and Endo10(5) stimulated the plants more than the control, while the proximity to Ecto10(6) caused them to wilt and die. However, at 5 cm, the bacterium that most promoted the development of Arabidopsis was Ecto10(6). In the divided box test, all three bacteria showed the ability to promote growth. In addition, a shade mesh assay was carried out with the inoculation of the bacteria in Solanum lycopersicum L. (Sahariana) and it was found that the promoting ef fect was also observed in the germination and growth of tomato plants. Tests were conducted to determine its ability to produce IAA, siderophores, and solubilize phosphates. Through molecular techniques it was confirmed: the identity of Ecto10(6), Endo10(7), and Endo10(5) as Aneurinibacillus migulanus, Staphylococcus sp. and Bacillus cereus, respectively. Our results provide the rationale for suggesting that these rhizobacteria may increase the growth and development of Arabidopsis thaliana and Solanum lycopersicum.</p> Jessica Lizbeth Coria-Arellano Jorge Sáenz-Mata Manuel Fortis-Hernández Miguel Ángel Gallegos-Robles Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-05-31 2023-05-31 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1666 Morphological and physiological responses of Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L. seedlings of dif ferent origin to salt stress <p>The salinity of soils and water for irrigation is a limitation that influences the productivity of crops that has increased worldwide and af fects the morphology and physiology of plants since it causes osmotic stress and ionic toxicity and impairs the absorption of water and nutrients. The ef fect of salt stress on some morphological and physiological traits in Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L. (sea grape) seedlings from dif ferent origins was evaluated and the traits whose behavior under salt stress could be used as an ef fective criterion of tolerance to salinity were determined. A completely randomized design experiment with ten repetitions was performed. The factors under study were salinity (0, 5, 15, and 25 dS m-1), which was maintained for a period of sixteen weeks, and the second factor was the origin of the plant material. The salinity level and the seedlings’ origin significantly influenced the morphological and physiological variables controlled. However, it is necessary to carry out in situ experiments to obtain more information related to the mechanisms used by sea grape to tolerate salinity conditions, because in the consulted sources no research focused on evaluating the ef fect of salinity and the origin on the morphology and physiology of C. uvifera seedlings in Cuba has been found. The results of the research provide preliminary information to understand the negative ef fect of salt stress on this type of plant. The behavior of some controlled traits under salt stress can be used as an ef fective criterion of tolerance to salinity.</p> Mijail Mijares Bullaín-Galardis Raúl Campos-Posada Gloria Campos-Posada Bettina Eichler- Löbermann Ludovic Pruneau Amadou Bâ Raúl López-Sánchez Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-04-30 2023-04-30 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1655 Soil fertility and nutrition in cacao cultivation (Theobroma cacao L.) in three soils of Tabasco, Mexico <p>Cocoa is a traditional crop in southern Mexico, although its productivity is low due to edaphic and nutritional limitations. Hence, the aim of our research was to diagnose edaphic fertility and the nutritional content of cacao plantations in the main groups of cultivated soils in La Chontalpa, the main cocoa production area of Tabasco state, to identify the edaphic and nutritional variables that restrict crop productivity. Through the analysis of satellite images, sampling sites were selected in representative soils of the study area and the coordinates were geopositioned to locate them. Soil profiles were described to classify the soils of the sampling sites. Soil samples were collected at depths of 0-10, 10-30 and 30-50 cm, to determine variables of soil fertility. In producer trees, foliar samples were collected to determine the concentrations of macronutrients. The results indicate that the plantations are cultivated on Vertisols, Cambisols and Fluvisols, which do not show restrictions in most of the edaphic properties. However, due to the low C/N ratio (&lt; 12) of the soils, there is a decrease in the OM and N contents, which are added to a K deficit, causing low concentrations of both macronutrients in the foliage of the plants. In conclusion, the main edaphic restrictions that can af fect cocoa cultivation in La Chontalpa are the rapid loss of OM and a deficit of N and K in the soil, which cause low concentrations of both nutrients in the foliage of the trees.</p> Sandra Patricia Francisco-Santiago David Jesús Palma-López Rufo Sánchez-Hernández José Jesús Obrador-Olán Pedro García-Alamilla Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-04-30 2023-04-30 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1116 Role of Bacillus subtilis and phosphorus doses on macronutrient concentration, partitioning and uptake of common bean <p>Knowledge on macronutrient uptake and distribution is highly relevant in fertilization management programs of common bean crop (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). In this regard, the use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in combination with phosphorus fertilization could exert a synergistic ef fect and potentiate the process of uptake and distribution of nutrients on this crop. A field experiment was established to investigate the response of the common bean crop to four phosphorus (P) doses, (0, 25, 50, 100 kg ha-1 P2O5) and the strain Bacillus subtilis Q11 (Bs) (seed inoculation and a control without inoculation) on macronutrient concentration, distribution and accumulation. The experiment was arranged under a split plot in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. According to our results, the P doses and the inoculation process af fected biomass accumulation individually. The highest biomass accumulation was obtained with P doses &gt;50 kg ha‑1; whereas inoculation with Bs produced higher biomass compared to the control. The interaction P × Bs af fected significantly the concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium in dif ferent plant organs in all stages of growth, except for pods during the grain filling stage. The nutrient uptake pattern exhibited a sigmoid curve and was individually modified by the P doses and Bs inoculation. The 50 kg ha-1 P dose increased macronutrient accumulation, especially during grain filling; while the inoculation with Bs enhanced the uptake process during grain filling and physiological maturity stages. In conclusion, combining Bs and P doses inflicts positive ef fects over the modification of concentration, uptake and macronutrient accumulation in common bean crop.</p> Jesús del Rosario Ruelas-Islas Luis A. Peinado-Fuentes Celia S. Romero-Félix Cándido Mendoza-Pérez Hernán Celaya-Michel Pablo Preciado-Rangel Quintín A. Ayala-Armenta Fidel Núñez-Ramírez Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-04-30 2023-04-30 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1056 Oligogalacturonide dose optimization on the vegetative propagation of two cocoa clones (Theobroma cacao L.) under controlled conditions in the nursery <p>The low ef ficiency of cocoa vegetative propagation from cuttings requires the use of rooting agents. This situation motivated a study whose objective is to optimize the oligogalacturonide dose on the vegetative propagation of two cocoa clones under controlled conditions in the nursery. The source of oligogalacturonides was provided in doses: 0, 10, 50 and 100 mg L-1 compared to the chemical rooting (composed of: 7% nitrogen, 45% phosphorus, 5% potassium, 0.1% boron, 3% metabolic activators and 10% marine algae), which was applied by immersion at the base of the cutting. The clones tested were CCN-51 and EET-801. The evaluated variables were: number of leaves and roots, radical fraction, fresh biomass of leaves and roots, dry biomass of leaves, roots, and stem and index of regenerated plants. The results indicated that the doses of 50 and 100 mg L-1 showed the greatest ef fects on the number of leaves (NH), radical fraction (FR), dry biomass of the leaf (DSB) and stem (DST). Clone CCN-51 showed higher NH, FR, BSH and BST than EET-801 (P &lt; 0.05). In number of roots (NR), fresh root biomass (BFR), dry root biomass (DRB), fresh leaf biomass (BFH) and the index of regenerated plants (IPR), the clones were the same. The IPR had a positive correlation with the other variables (P &lt; 0.05). Using 85 mg L-1 of chemical rooting an IPR of 49.1% can be achieved. The IPR can be predicted based on the variables BFR and BFH with R2 = 0.96.</p> Juan José Reyes-Pérez Luis Tarquino Llerena-Ramos Juan Antonio Torres-Rodríguez Luis Guillermo Hernández-Montiel Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-04-01 2023-04-01 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1648 Physiological and genetic analysis of a mapping population responsiveness to plant growth-promoting Azospirillum in wheat <p>Azospirillum brasilense is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) with the potential of being employed as an inoculant to decrease the use of chemical fertilizers. We investigated the ef fect of A. brasilense inoculation on a doubled haploid population derived from Opata / WSHD67.2(257) cross and detected Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for seven agronomic traits. The population was segregated, concerning their response to inoculation, into three subgroups: neutral, positive, and negative in a proportion of 60:25:15. A total of 18 major QTL and 83 minor QTL controlled the expression of measured traits. Nineteen QTL showed pleiotropic characteristics; chromosomes 5A, 7A, 7B, and 7D were distinguished as those with QTL controlling four of the seven phenotypes measured. The sequences of nearest markers to major QTL detected synteny to rice sequences that codified for at least 38 candidate genes described and discussed as a first step to understanding the interaction of wheat with A. brasilense.</p> Thelma Castellanos-Cervantes Jose Luis Diaz de León Jie Ling Marion Röder Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-04-01 2023-04-01 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1589 Ef fect of native microorganism ef ficacy and compost in three altitudinal zones on quinoa crop (Chenopodium quinoa) variety INIA 415-Pasankalla <p>Organic fertilizers are a sustainable alternative to conventional fertilizers that cause contamination of natural resources. The objective of this study is to determine the ef ficacy of native microorganisms (ENM) and compost on yield and profitability on the cultivation of quinoa variety INIA 415-Pasankalla in three altitudinal levels (Faical 1935 m altitude, Lagunas Amarillas 2328 m altitude and Cascapampa 2995&nbsp;m altitude). Five treatments were evaluated: T0 (control), T1 (MEN 2.5%), T2 (MEN 5.0%), T3 (MEN 2.5%+0.9 kg compost m-1) and T4 (MEN 5.0%+1.8 kg compost&nbsp;m-1), considering: PA (plant height), RHa (yield per hectare), RPa (yield plant-1), PP (panicle weight), PMG (thousand kernel weight) and DT (stem diameter). In addition, the benefit/cost per treatment was analyzed. A principal component analysis (PCA), three-way ANOVA comparison and correlation analysis were performed. The PCA yielded two components (C1 and C2) explaining 97.20% of the variability of the study. Component 1 (78.46%) explained the greatest variability and grouped the variables: G-I (AP, DT), G-II (RHa, Rpa, PP). Treatments T4 and T3 showed the best results in relation to altitude: Lagunas Amarillas-T4 with G-I and Cascapampa-T4 with G-II showed the highest study values. However, Cascapampa-T2 was the most profitable (b/c= 5,68). The combined mixture of organic inputs made from local raw materials and applied in foliar form, and the soils present in T4, improved the yields and profitability of the quinoa crop in relation to altitude.</p> Miguel Galecio-Julca María Neira-Ojeda Roger Chanduvi-García Ricardo Peña-Castillo Luis Armando Álvarez-Bernaola Carlos Granda-Wong David Lindo-Seminario Elizabeth Saavedra-Alberca Javier Javier-Alva Davies Arturo Morales-Pizarro Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-04-01 2023-04-01 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1622 "Assessment of the soil quality of Tabasco, Mexico using conventional methods, near-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics <p>A retrospective–prospective research was carried out to establish a soil quality index (SQI) of Los Rios region (RR), Tabasco, Mexico, and its modeling with the near infrared technology (NIR) and chemometrics. The SQI was determined with the OM&nbsp;/&nbsp;(clay + silt) relationship to evaluate the Cambisol soils of RR. The OM percentage and the SQI were compared to define the best soil quality qualifier. Based on the SQI, 58% of the soils in RR exhibit degradation, while only 14% indicates a low concentration of OM. Therefore, we conclude that the SQI is more sensitive to quantify soil degradation compared to the evaluation based on OM. A sustainable soil management program and soil practices adapted to local environmental, social and economic conditions are recommended to increase OM and improve SQI. With the SQI, a classification model was established using near-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics. The spectra of each soil sample were recorded and through chemometric interpretation, it was shown that it is possible to conduct a partial least squares discriminant analysis model (PLS-DA) to predict the SQI. The model meets all statistical qualifiers and correctly predicts the SQI in 100% of cases. We conclude that the NIR technology provides suf ficient information to predict the SQI with the advantage of eliminating the consumption of reagents, no laboratory waste is generated, the analysis time is reduced to minutes, and the sample under study is not destroyed. In addition, the procedure is simple as it consists of drying, grinding and sieving the soil samples to assess the structural quality of the soil.</p> Alex Ricardo Ramírez-García Armando Guerrero-Peña Joel Zavala-Cruz Eustolia García-López Rufo Sánchez-Hernández Joaquín Alberto Rincón-Ramírez Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-04-01 2023-04-01 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1616 Influence of four concentrations of Steiner solution on nutrients in soil solution and productivity in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) <p>The development and productivity of agricultural crops is directly related to the nutritional supply they receive. The hypothesis of this trial is that the concentration of ions measured in the soil solution allows evaluating the ef ficiency of the nutritional management and its ef fect on the crop – the concentration of ions are conditioned by the mineral supply and the ion exchange processes of the soil. Thus, the objective of the experiment is to measure the ef fect of the continuous application of four nutrient solution concentrations on the concentration of ions in the soil solution and the tomato crop response under greenhouse conditions. The trial was established in calcareous soil under a complete randomized block design with three replications, with indeterminate tomato plants. The treatments were four concentrations of a Steiner solution modified for tomato cultivation: (1) 50, (2) 75, (3) 100 and (4) 125% applied continuously by fertigation. In each treatment the soil solution was extracted, and the concentration of NO3-, K+ and Ca+2 ions, pH and electrical conductivity were measured for 18 weeks at the same time the crop response was measured. The concentration of the nutrient solution applied constantly to the tomato crop has a direct relationship with the availability of nutrients. The nutrient solution at 125% generated better growth, physiology, commercial quality and agronomic yield. Calcium was the only element that was detected in suf ficient levels in the soil solution from a concentration of 50% in the nutrient solution because of its high original availability in the soil.</p> Felicito Ausencio Díaz-Vázquez Marcelino Cabrera-De la Fuente Adalberto Benavides-Mendoza Valentín Robledo-Torres Antonio Juárez-Maldonado Álvaro García-León Alberto Sandoval-Rangel Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-03-01 2023-03-01 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1646 Hydrological modeling with the SWAT model using dif ferent spatial distributions of soil type in the Mixteco River Basin <p>The Mixteco River basin is located in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico and comprises a total area of 6 559.20 km2, which shows a strong degradation of its natural resources, derived mainly from anthropic actions associated with poor management of its natural resources. Thus, the goal of this research is to evaluate the runof f behavior with the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model in the Mixteco River basin using the soil spatial distribution from INEGI (Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía) and that obtained through technique of DSM (Digital Soil Mapping) technique. The modeling with INEGI (ModINEGI) corresponds to the soil map of the series II scale 1:250 000, and the modeling with DSM (ModDSM) was obtained from the environmental covariates. The SWAT model performance evaluation indicators during the calibration phase were R2 = 0.88 and NSE = 0.87 for ModDSM and R2&nbsp;= 0.85 and NSE = 0.85 for ModINEGI. However, during the validation period, the ModDSM results (R2 = 0.83 and NSE = 0.81) were better than those of ModINEGI (R2 = 0.83 and NSE = 0.61). Therefore, the results indicate that the spatial variation of the soil types obtained through the DSM technique in combination with the vegetation cover and the distribution of slopes at the basin level, allow the SWAT model to simulate the adequate surface runof f behavior.</p> Gerardo Colín-García Enrique Palacios-Vélez Demetrio Salvador Fernández-Reynoso Adolfo López-Pérez Héctor Flores-Magdaleno Roberto Ascencio-Hernández Enrique Inoscencio Canales-Islas Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-03-01 2023-03-01 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1566 Total Nitrogen in forage corn (Zea mays L.) estimated by satellite Sentinel-2 spectral indices <p>Nitrogen is the most important nutrient for forage crops because of its contribution in various biochemical reactions in the dif ferent phenological stages of the plant. The main aim of this study is to develop a multiple linear regression model to estimate total nitrogen (Nt) in corn plants using spectral indexes. The percentage of total nitrogen (Nt) was determined through three plant samplings in four experimental plots. The estimation model was obtained to process the Sentinel-2 satellite images according to the plant sampling dates; 13 spectral indexes were calculated and the association between nitrogen and the reflectance values was analyzed by the principal component analysis (ACP), correlation matrix, and dendrogram. The indexes with the highest relationship were MCARI / OSAVI, TCARI / OSAVI, MCARI / OSAVI RE and TCARI / OSAVI RE, explaining more than 50% of the variability of the proposed model and a MSE of 0.12. This study indicates that the estimation obtained from Sentinel-2 spectral indexes images has great potential to determine nitrogen in crops. However, for future research, Nt estimation models should be obtained for each phenological crop stage.</p> Magali J. López-Calderón Juan Estrada-Ávalos Aldo R. Martínez-Sifuentes Ramón Trucíos-Caciano Enrique Miguel-Valle Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-03-01 2023-03-01 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1628 Edaphological characterization in a blue agave (Agave tequilana Weber) cultivation in Tonaya and Tuxcacuesco, Jalisco, Mexico <p>The cultivation of blue agave has economic importance in the state of Jalisco as it generates employment, being the main economic source in several municipalities such as Tonaya and Tuxcacuesco. However, at present, the edaphological status of the soils is unknown and there is limited knowledge on the factors that regulate crop growth, which limits the determination of optimal crop yields. In this sense, the aim of our research was to evaluate the state of fertility of the soils cultivated with blue agave in plots with different characteristics (virgin and with several planting cycles), as well as to diagnose their status in the Tonaya and Tuxcacuesco municipalities in order to suggest more efficient management and nutrition practices. After analyses in the laboratory, the results show that the soils presented a mean pH value of 7.7, the mean concentration of organic matter was 2.19%. Overall deficiencies of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were found, thus, the soils were classified in the low‑to‑poor category in terms of nutritional content. Moreover, there were no significant differences between the plots evaluated, organic matter content and nutrients. We recommend the use of organic fertilizers and bean/corn/agave polyculture when agricultural and economic resources are sufficient.</p> Blanca Elizabeth Fregoso-Zamorano Oscar Raúl Mancilla-Villa Rubén Darío Guevara-Gutiérrez Arturo Moreno-Hernández Pedro Figueroa-Bautista Álvaro Can-Chulim Omar Hernández-Vargas Elia Cruz-Crespo Héctor Manuel Ortega-Escobar Abdul Khalil Gardezi Víctor Manuel Villalvazo-López Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-01-31 2023-01-31 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1592 Bibliometric study on biofertilizers in Mexico during the period 2015-2020 <p>We characterized the trend of scientific research on biofertilizers in Mexico based on publications of national and foreign scientific journals during the 2015-2020 period. Our study consisted on the interpretation of research articles (in English and Spanish) published in the following scientific databases: Ebsco, Elsevier, Springer, Scielo, Wiley and Redalyc, for the analysis of bibliometric indicators. Productivity was determined by year, authors, journals, institutions, and collaborations between countries and Mexican states, on issues related to the use of microorganisms by agricultural crop, biofertilizer brands, and econometric variables and indicators. Within the evaluated period, a total of 115 research articles were published, with an annual average of 19 research articles. The most productive year was 2020, with 40 research articles. The authors with the greatest leadership in publications were Arturo Díaz Franco Santacruz and Cid Aguilar Carpio. The scientific journals that published the greatest number of these research articles were Terra Latinoamericana and Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Agrícolas. The main Mexican institutions performing the research were the National Institute of Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock Research (INIFAP) and the Postgraduate College. The United States of America is the country that collaborated the most with Mexican states (five states). Research in corn, varieties of chili, tomato, wheat and sorghum prevailed, being present in more than six research articles. Out of 33 brands of biofertilizers analyzed during the period, Micorriza INIFAP® was applied in more than 27% of the crops that used commercial biofertilizers. The most used microorganisms belonged to the genera Glomus, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Azospirillum sp. Most of the research papers on biofertilizers are developed in the areas of agronomy, biology and environmental sciences, specifically in studies treating certain agricultural crop, while there are only few studies in the area of administration or marketing.</p> Andrés Eduardo Coutino-Puchuli Maida Daylin Peña-Borrego Zoe Tamar Infante-Jimenez Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-01-31 2023-01-31 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1449 El Population density and fertilization ef fect on water productivity and yield of corn hybrids in the Mexico Valley <p>Food insuf ficiency in corn and water and fertilizer crisis worldwide demand ef ficiency in the use of resources, increasing or conserving production. Thus, the objective of this research is to explore the response of four white maize hybrids released for valles Altos in two environments considering two population densities, two doses of fertilization and an unfertilized control group. Hybrids were evaluated in a factorial arrangement in Cuautitlan (FESC-UNAM) and Texcoco (CEVAMEX), Mexico State, at two planting densities (D1 = 75,000; D2 = 90,000 plants ha-1) with three fertilization treatments (F1 = 160-80-00, F2 = 120-40-00, F3 = 00-00-00). The completely randomized block design experiment was made up of the treatments and the combination of the factors 2×4×2×3 established in three repetitions. The means were compared with Tukey’s test (P &lt; 0.05). In FESC-UNAM with less total water, the result of grain yield and water productivity was 5.96 Mg ha-1 and 1.29&nbsp;kg&nbsp;m-3 in CEVAMEX 4.76 Mg ha-1 and 0.5 kg m-3; the Atziri Puma hybrid stood out with 6.52&nbsp;Mg&nbsp;ha-1 and 1.09 kg m-3. No significant ef fect of planting density was observed and D1 resulted with 5.32 Mg ha-1 and 0.9 kg m-3 versus D2 with 5.40 Mg ha-1 and 0.9&nbsp;kg m-3. In fertilization F1 was statistically higher with 5.64 Mg ha-1 and 0.94 kg&nbsp;m-3. Nevertheless, no dif ference was observed between F2 (5.24 Mg ha-1 and 0.88 kg&nbsp;m-3) and the control F3 (5.19 Mg ha-1 and 0.87 kg m-3), which showed the interaction of the environments with hybrids, of which Atziri Puma stood out at FESC-UNAM (7.3&nbsp;Mg&nbsp;ha-1 and 1.58 kg m-3). The FESC-UNAM site has productive potential under rainfed conditions with the Puma and INIFAP hybrids.</p> Homero Alonso-Sánchez Margarita Tadeo-Robledo Alejandro Espinosa-Calderón Job Zaragoza-Esparza Consuelo López-López Benjamín Zamudio-González Alan Monter-Santillán Antonio Turrent-Fernández Israel Arteaga-Escamilla Karina Mora-García Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-01-31 2023-01-31 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1577 Effect of tezontle particle diameter in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in aquaponics <p>Aquaponics is a complex food production system where fish and vegetables are produced simultaneously. Microorganisms, fish and plants participate in it; it is a complex system where conditions conducive to fish may not be suitable for microorganisms and plants. The diameter of the substrate particles for plant support and space for microorganism colonies can be a determining factor in aquaponics. This research investigates the particle size of tezontle, a porous red volcanic gravel that is used in Mexico for hydroponics and that here it is hypothesized that there is a particle size of this material that favors the growth and yield of plants in aquaponics.&nbsp;The model consisted of the use of 12 containers of 120 L as ponds for fish, and 12 tubs of 240 L for the substrate and a 120 L/min air pump to supply auxiliary oxygenation to the ponds. Three crops were established in each tub: tomato, cucumber, and lettuce. These cultures were transplanted in 3 tezontle diameters: particle diameter less than 1 cm (Æ&lt;1), greater than 5 cm (Æ&gt;5) and 50:50 % (v:v) mixture of both diameters (&lt;1:&gt;5), which constituted the substrate particle diameter treatments. There was no effect of substrate particle diameter on height, stem diameter, and SPAD readings in tomato, cucumber or lettuce plants. Regarding the yield and quality of tomato fruits (firmness, titratable acidity and ˚Brix) there were also no effects of the particle diameter of the substrate. There was also no effect of treatments on the morphological and quality variables of cucumber fruits. In the final fresh weight of lettuce, the treatment with substrate with diameter &lt;1 cm was statistically superior to diameter &gt;5 cm with averages of 89.87 g and 50.12 g respectively.&nbsp;Particle diameter does not affect the yield or quality of established crops, however, in practical terms the fine substrate &lt; 1 cm is recommended because it has greater moisture retention capacity and greater surface area for bacteria to colonize the environment, and promote higher plant growth and fruit quality in aquaponics. The fine substrate acts as a filter to retain suspended solids and prevents clogging of the system, and improves water quality and generates better living conditions for fish.</p> Andrés Valenzuela-Antelo Manuel Sandoval-Villa Juan J. Almaraz-Suárez Gabriel Alcántar-González Rafael Bórquez-López Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-01-31 2023-01-31 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1598 Digital soil mapping with regression-Kriging and data from remote sensing <p>The use of digital soil mapping allows obtaining quantitative information on soil distribution and functioning to provide alternatives for their management. The objective of this research is to perform the spatial prediction of soil properties through regression-kriging and serve as a basis for taking the necessary measures for a sustainable use of the resource. The study area is located in the wetland Cienaga de Chapala portion of Michoacán, Mexico. Soil sampling was systematic. In the laboratory, electrical conductivity, organic carbon, soluble cations calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium (Ca, K, Mg, Na), total nitrogen and pH were determined for each soil sample. The dependent variables were total nitrogen, electrical conductivity, organic carbon and pH. The independent variables are the Landsat 8 satellite bands. Regression-kriging was applied for spatial prediction. The experimental semivariogram fit with theoretical models was consistent for the four soil properties, because it was a systematic sampling design and the sample size was 297 points. The root mean square error of the electrical conductivity spatial prediction was 4 because it showed a coefficient of variation of 355. Soils are considered having from low to very low total nitrogen content (&lt;0.15%). At least 30% of the soils have salinity problems because their electrical conductivity is greater than 1.1 dS m-1. Organic carbon contents are considered medium to high (&gt;0.6%). The pH of the soils is moderately alkaline.</p> Francisco Estrada-Godoy Gustavo Cruz-Cárdenas Salvador Ochoa-Estrada José Teodoro Silva Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-01-31 2023-01-31 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1617 Land use change by the NAICM construction in Texcoco, Mexico State <p>Mexico’s New International Airport megaproject was announced for the first time in 2001 and canceled in 2019; however, most of its construction progress took place during 2012-2018. With its announcement and cancellation there was a land use change and speculation regarding the land value. This study evaluates the impact that the airport construction and cancellation had over land use change in the municipality of Texcoco and neighboring municipalities in Mexico State, and the perception of key players concerning its effects. High-resolution images from the Sentinel-2 satellite were processed for the years 2016 to 2021. Geographic information systems were used to carry out a supervised classification with spectral indices and generate thematic maps of land use with four classes: bare soil, vegetated soil, urban land and water bodies. Interviews were applied to key players for a qualitative analysis of the appreciation of changes and effects derived from the airport project. Results show a higher growth rate of urban land from 2016 to 2017, mainly close to the airport building, replacing mostly bare soil. The airport caused discontent in the population by its environmental effects and social consequences, such as problems due to freight vehicles traffic. As a result of the airport cancellation, there is bare ground caused by mine exploitation and vehicular insecurity due to incomplete roads.</p> Arely Romero-Padilla Martín Hernández-Juárez Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-01-31 2023-01-31 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1608 Chitosan nanoparticles improve yield, enzymatic activity, and bioactive compounds in tomato fruits <p>Chitosan nanoparticles (NPsCS) are used as natural biostimulants in sustainable agriculture since they increase crop productivity and induce the synthesis of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, protecting the plant from stress. The present study was developed to determine the ef fect of foliar application of NPsCS on yield, enzymatic activity, and content of bioactive compounds in tomato fruits. The trial was established completely randomized design with six escalating doses of NPsCS 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 mg mL-1. The foliar spray of 0.2 mg mL-1 increases the fruits’ yield, size, and firmness. High doses increase bioactive compounds and enzymatic activity. The foliar-applied NPsCS has excellent potential to be used as biostimulants to improve performance and obtain functional foods.</p> Silvia C. Ramírez-Rodríguez Hortensia Ortega-Ortiz Susana González-Morales Pablo Preciado-Rangel Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-08-27 2023-08-27 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1686 Production of swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla L.) with snook (Centropomus viridis) culture effluent in aquaponic system <p>In the ecosystems of arid and semi-arid zones, food production is increasingly complex. One of the most important effects is desertification where water plays a key role. Therefore, seeking strategies for the production of safe and sustainable food is the current challenge. The production of food through aquaponics is an alternative to respond to this problem. In the Baja California Peninsula, the low annual rainfall and the geographical characteristics naturally make water scarce; but if also add anthropogenic factor, we have as a result, mostly brackish aquifers. In this context, was analyzed, the efficiency in the use of snook culture effluent, in the growth of chard, in a aquaponic system. Were measured the parameters physicochemical of the snook culture effluent and how they influence the morphometric response in chard under hydroponic system. Was compared the response with a traditional system with well water effluent and conventional fertilization. Obtained greater growth in the plants in the hydroponic system, but with snook culture effluent (with a significant difference in length, biomass, leaf area and number of leaves). This study demonstrates the efficiency of the use of snook culture effluent in the growth and development of chard. This knowledge will generate future research with application in biotechnological innovation that can be used by society, with benefits due to the ability to grow species of quality in density, take advantage of nutrients, control water availability, take advantage and improve climatic conditions. We believe that this model snook-chard is ideal for sustainable production systems.</p> Diana Medina-Hernández Daniel Ruiz-Juárez Ramón Jaime Holguín-Peña Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-08-27 2023-08-27 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1683 Evolution of sea water intrusion and ionic ratios in the aquifer of La Paz BCS, Mexico <p>Since many years ago the aquifer of La Paz is overexploited and with pollution problems due to seawater intrusion. Through an analysis of total dissolved solids (TDS), main anions and cations, from 2013 to 2019, it was found that the front of the marine wedge considering the 1000 mg L-1 isoline moved a maximum distance of 8.8 and 8 km on two main fronts, the north zone delimited between the Chametla and El Centenario ejidos, and the northeast zone located to the east of the Chametla ejido and south of the city of La Paz. Throughout the period, the TDS concentrations remained with little variation without significant increase. Most of the sampled agricultural wells had concentrations greater than 1000 and 2000 mg L-1, unlike the potable water wells with concentrations less than 1000 and 500 mg L-1. A high concentration of chlorides, sodium and calcium, whose evolution was very similar to that of the TDS was observed. With dif ferent ionic ratios it was possible to support the theory that the increase and permanence of salinity is due to seawater intrusion. However the freshwater-saltwater mixing zone is derived from a combination of groundwater recharge with seawater. Based on the obtained results, it is estimated that agricultural wells have not increased their extractions and that most of the potable water wells are still out of the reach of contamination since the area where they are located is very dynamic and appears to have high permeability conditions.</p> Arturo Cruz-Falcón Janette Magalli Murillo-Jiménez Héctor Cirilo Fraga-Palomino Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-08-27 2023-08-27 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1636 Water status and growth of mint plants (Mentha spicata L.) under vermicompost and water deficit treatments <p>Approximately 85% of the emerging lands on our planet are subject to the action of drought. The use of natural fertilizers is part of the strategies to achieve greater retention of water in the soil. The application of vermicompost is one of the most used fertilizers for the improvement and preservation of agricultural soils, it is easy to prepare and low cost. Deepening the knowledge of its use in soils of arid zones allows better use of this resource for the solution of drought problems. In this context, the objective of this work was to generate information about the use of vermicompost and its ef fect on soil with water deficit in the cultivation of mint. For this, an experiment was established with a completely randomized design with two factors: the use of vermicompost with a unique dose level that is used by some of the producers of Baja California Sur, and edaphic water deficit with a level established af ter having carried out irrigation to saturation until causing a sustained loss of turgor in the plants. The treatments established were soil-vermicompost-without deficit (SVSD), soil-vermicompost with a deficit (SVCD), soil-without deficit (SSD), and soil-with deficit (SCD). The results showed that the dose of vermicompost used by some of the producers in Baja California Sur for the cultivation of mint is insuf ficient to mitigate the ef fect of edaphic water deficit in the cultivation of mint. The ef fect of edaphic water deficit on mint plants was manifested as negative water potential. For future research, the use of dif ferent doses of vermicompost is recommended to determine the best amounts of this fertilizer for growing mint under water deficit.</p> Clara Samira Rojo-Zavala Alejandra Nieto-Garibay Enrique Troyo-Diéguez Gregorio Lucero-Vega Emilio García-Galindo Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-08-27 2023-08-27 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1634 Biofilms in the rhizosphere and their role in the production of antimicrobial compounds in the soil <p>Plants play a key role in ecosystems. Like other living organisms, plants have microbiomes that allow them to maintain good health and cope with the different types of stress to which they are subjected. At this point, one of the most complex and rich environments is the microbiome that inhabits plants roots in the rhizosphere. In the rhizosphere, there is a complex network of interactions that have only recently begun to be understood. Within these interactions, the biofilm formation on the root surface is a crucial step in the establishment of microbial communities in plants. However, until recent years, its importance in the complex network of interactions that occur between the plant-microorganism, microorganism-microorganism, and its function for soils has begun to be studied. The latest advances in the knowledge of biofilms formation on the rhizosphere, and their role in the production of different antimicrobial compounds in the soil, like different antibiotics, that could be used to improve food production systems or for the benefit of human health, are discussed in this review.</p> Abraham Loera-Muro María Goretty Caamal-Chan Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-08-27 2023-08-27 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1733 Editorial - Alternativas del uso y manejo del suelo del agua y la vegetación <p>El presente número integra manuscritos implementados por científicos investigadores de la Universidad del Mar, campus Puerto Escondido, así como de instituciones de relevancia nacional como el Colegio de Postgraduados, la Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit y la Universidad de Guadalajara. Las contribuciones que se presentan, muestran el interés de los científicos en el estudio de la calidad química de las aguas superficiales de algunas cuencas de importancia nacional, la salinidad de los suelos, la evaluación de la tolerancia a sales de algunos pastos costeros como alternativa para la producción de forraje, las características fenológicas y crecimiento de especies nativas en conservación de la selva baja caducifolia, alternativas de alimentación de ganado con especies vegetales forrajeras, así como, la disponibilidad de establecer manchones arbóreos en suelos salinos del Ex Lago de Texcoco, México. Estas contribuciones integran datos experimentales de campo que muestran conclusiones validas sobre la respuesta de los fenómenos. De igual manera, proponen alternativas de uso y manejo del suelo del agua y la vegetación que persiguen la conservación de los ecosistemas y la generación del bienestar socioeconómico de las comunidades rurales que integran las áreas de estudio. Esperando lograr la inquietud cognoscitiva del público en general.</p> <p>Con especial reconocimiento al Dr. Edgar Iván Sánchez Bernal (1963 - 2022) por su incansable estudio a favor de los suelos de la costa de Oaxaca.</p> Verónica Ortega-Baranda Copyright (c) 2023 2023-05-29 2023-05-29 41 Characterization of the salinity in soils of the San Pedro River floodplain, Nayarit, Mexico <p>The floodplain of the San Pedro River, a fluvial-delta formation, is one of the coastal areas affected by marine intrusion during the last glaciation. In this region, agriculture is the main economic activity; however, intensive agricultural practices, the geological past, current interactions with the marine system and the transport of salts through sediments and water make this area susceptible to soil salinization. To characterize the salinity of the agricultural area of the San Pedro River floodplain, two soil samplings were carried out at 91 sites over a period of two years. Samples were taken from depths of 0.0 to 0.3 m and from 0.0 to 0.1 m to depths of 1 m and 3 m. Fifty groundwater samples were collected. Saturation extracts were obtained (1: θsat) from the soil samples. For the soil and groundwater extracts, the pH, EC, and major cations and anions were determined, the sodium adsorption ratio was calculated in the original and adjusted formulations (SARor and SARadj), and the exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) was ascertained. The pH, EC and SARor of the groundwater ranged from 6.94 to 8.37, 199 to 4660 µS cm-1 and 0.16 to 32.30 (mmolc L-1)1/2, while in the saturation extracts, the pH, EC and SARor ranged from 4.81 to 8.58, 0.08 to 72.4&nbsp;dS m-1 and 0.11 to 33.09 (mmolc L-1)1/2, respectively. The salinity problems in the study area are closely related to the intrusion of salts from the marine system.</p> Héctor Manuel Ortega-Escobar Oscar Germán Martínez-Rodríguez Álvaro Can-Chulim Elia Cruz-Crespo José Irán Bojórquez-Serrano Juan Diego García-Paredes Edgar Iván Sánchez-Bernal Alberto Madueño-Molina Oscar Raúl Mancilla-Villa Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-05-28 2023-05-28 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1606 Quelites in poultry feed <p>In traditional poultry farming, the consumption of fresh plants is an important part of the diet and a fundamental component of the indigenous poultry raising technique. Therefore, the objective is to know the studies that have included some quelites for feeding domestic birds. Quelite is a term used to refer to edible tender plants which are used as a whole plant, sprouts, branches, leaves, petioles, stems or flowers. The present review will consider the quelites Amaranth (Amarantus sp.), Chepil (Crotalaria longirostrada), Epazote (Dysphania ambrosioides), Blackberry (Solanum americanum), Holy grass (Piper autitum), Guaje (Leucaena leucocephala), Huazontle (Chenopodium berlandieri subsp. nuttalliae) and Purslane (Portuca olerecea). Nutritional and nutraceutical characteristics of these chelites are presented. In tests of egg and meat production, both in hens and in native turkeys, the main results of these studies are presented. The use of quelites in poultry farming has begun to be tested in order to reduce production costs, without af fecting the productive variables or the quality of eggs or meat. Although contradictory information has been reported, there is enough evidence to continue this line of study. It is proven that quelites have dif ferent nutritional and nutraceutical properties, which are intended to be used in favor of producers and consumers; however, much research is lacking.</p> Marco Antonio Camacho-Escobar Martha Patrícia Jerez-Salas Serafín Jacobo López-Garrido Mónica Marcela Galicia-Jiménez Narciso Ysac Ávila-Serrano Edgar Iván Sánchez-Bernal Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-05-28 2023-05-28 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1605 Heavy metals in water and macroinvertebrates of the Ayuquila-Armería river basin (Mexico) and its af fluents <p>The Ayuquila-Armería river basin is classified as a priority hydrographic basin in Mexico for its high diversity and for the ecosystem pressure it is subjected to. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb and Zn) in water and aquatic macroinvertebrates, in addition to physical and chemical parameters (pH, EC and flow) in the tributary basins and the main channel. The present investigation was carried out with samplings in the rainy season in 2015, and in the dry season in 2016, at 18 sites in the basin. Determinations of heavy metals, physical and chemical parameters, collection of aquatic macroinvertebrates and estimation of the flow of the tributaries were carried out at each sampling site. In surface water, only Hg and Pb exceeded the permissible limits for natural waters (0.02 and 0.0015 mg L-1 respectively) in 60% of the sites; in terms of concentrations in macroinvertebrates, the six metals exceeded the permissible limits in the 65% of the sites with concentrations of 0.33 to 7.07 mg kg-1, of these the Hg (7.07 mg&nbsp;kg‑1) and the metalloid As (5.19 mg kg-1) were the ones that presented the highest concentrations.</p> Oscar Raúl Mancilla-Villa Larissa Gómez-Villaseñor Carlos Palomera-García Omar Hernández-Vargas Rubén Darío Guevara-Gutiérrez Héctor Manuel Ortega-Escobar Héctor Flores-Magdaleno Álvaro Can-Chulim Edgar Iván Sánchez-Bernal Juan Uriel Avelar-Roblero Elia Cruz-Crespo Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-05-28 2023-05-28 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1603 Tolerance of hybrids of the genus Brachiaria to various greenhouse saline conditions in Santa Elena, Oaxaca <p>In a greenhouse on the coast of Oaxaca, the tolerance of the hybrids pasture of the genus Brachiaria: Cobra (BR02/1794), Cayman (BR02/1752), Camello (GP 3025) and Mulato II (CIAT 36087) to induced saline conditions by NaCl, MgCl2 and NaHCO3, was evaluated with seven salinity levels: 0, 1.13, 2.48, 3.84, 5.19, 6.40 and 9.60 g&nbsp;L-1. The percentage of emergence, plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves and tillers, root length and biomass production were recorded. The experimental design was made up of a factorial with three salts, seven salinity levels, four grasses and three repetitions, which yield a total of 252 experimental units. The emergence percentage incresead over time in all cases and the growth parameters plant: height, stem diameter, number of leaves, and tillers, root lenght and total biomass production, decreased as the saline level increased in the following order Cobra at a saline threshold of 5.19 g L-1of NaCl, which is why it is considered moderately sensitive. While the grass that produced the least amount of biomass (0.34 g pl-1) was Cayman at a saline concentration of 1.13 g L-1 of NaHCO3. The experimental salts produced dwarfism and growth inhibition at concentrations greater than 6.40 g L-1, a phenomenon intensified by NaHCO3. The low tolerance of Cobra, Cayman, Camello and Mulato II grasses to NaCl, MgCl2 and NaHCO3 salts at concentrations &gt; 3.84&nbsp;g&nbsp;L-1 limits its cultivation to the coastal plain of Oaxaca. However, its implementation in field is possible with the application of sustainable techniques for the use and management of soil and irrigation water, to reduce the ef fects of salinity and improve forage production.</p> Edgar Iván Sánchez-Bernal Héctor Manuel Ortega-Escobar Verónica Ortega-Baranda Álvaro Can-Chulim Serafín Jacobo López-Garrido Jorge Ochoa-Somuano Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-05-28 2023-05-28 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1602 Variation of water quality in the main channel of the Panuco river basin <p>The use of wastewater in agricultural irrigation contributes to improving soil productivity and solving water scarcity problems. However, problems of salinity and sodicity in the soil, toxicity to plants, and public health problems are generated. In the Pánuco River basin, which originates in the Valley of Mexico and flows into the Gulf of Mexico, is the Valle del Mezquital, where approximately 90,000 ha are irrigated with wastewater that arrives through various routes, including the Great Drainage Canal. A part of the water that is used for irrigation infiltrates and is incorporated into the bed of the Tula River, which flows into the Zimapán dam. From the Zimapán dam, the channel acquires the name of the Moctezuma River and in the lower part of the Pánuco River basin until it discharges into the Gulf of Mexico. The objective of this work was to evaluate the water quality along the channel of the Pánuco river basin through sampling, laboratory determinations and analysis through quality indices with agronomic criteria, and to compare the results of the upper part of the basin with the lower part. The results indicate that the wastewater that enters the Mezquital Valley has an impact along the entire channel, but to a greater extent in the upper part of the basin. In all the sample points, the water is classified as bicarbonate-sodium, the RSC index indicates that 96% of the sites present some type of irrigation restriction, the EC is not ideal in any of the points and the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) evidences sodicity risks.</p> Juan Uriel Avelar-Roblero Héctor Manuel Ortega-Escobar Oscar Raúl Mancilla-Villa Abdul Khalil Gardezi Isabel Mendoza-Saldivar Edgar Iván Sánchez-Bernal Álvaro Can-Chulim Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-04-30 2023-04-30 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1601 Hydrochemistry and water quality for irrigation of RH 21 and 23 costa de Oaxaca and costa de Chiapas, Mexico <p>The hydrological region 21 coast of Oaxaca has an active tourist dynamic, it generates significant economic income, and it is considered the fourth most important socioeconomic region in the state of Oaxaca. Similarly, hydrological region 23 coast of Chiapas, has an economy governed by tertiary sector activities and is comprised of the Istmo-Costa and Soconusco socioeconomic regions, the latter is the main region that contributes to the gross domestic product of the state of Chiapas. It should be noted that this socioeconomic growth has required a greater demand for water resources, which has led to water pollution. The deterioration of the area’s water resources is caused by the discharge of wastewater, solid waste and agrochemicals into natural waterways. In order to assess the state of the water resources of hydrological regions 21 and 23, 31 sampling sites were established in the spring of 2021 distributed in the main streams. Each sample was analyzed for chemical properties: pH, electrical conductivity (EC), major anions and cations (CO32-, HCO3-, Cl-, SO42-, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+), total dissolved solids (TDS), percentage of sodium (%Na), adsorption ratio of sodium (RAS), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), permeability index (PI), as well as a hydrochemical evaluation. The waters of the hydrological regions 21 and 23 present as dominant facies the calcium-magnesium bicarbonate, whose possible origin is a consequence of the dilution process of the geological material (water-rock interaction) with low and medium concentrations. With respect to salinity, 45.16% are low salinity waters and 93.55% of the sites have low sodium, therefore, they are considered recommended for irrigation with moderate restrictions.</p> Adriana Camacho-Ballesteros Héctor Manuel Ortega-Escobar Edgar Iván Sánchez-Bernal Héctor Flores-Magdaleno Abdul Khalil Gardezi Isabel Mendoza-Saldivar Teobaldis Mercado-Fernández Juan Uriel Avelar-Roblero Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-04-30 2023-04-30 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1600 Population structure and phenology of cuachalalate (Amphipterygium adstringens) developed on degraded lithosol in the coast of Oaxaca <p>Amphipterigyum adstringens “cuachalalate” is growing on degraded soils of the low deciduous forest of the coast of Oaxaca. Two objectives were carried out: 1. On cuachalalate: to define the vertical and horizontal population structure, to identify the dispersal pattern of the individuals, and observe the period of the phenological phases. 2. On the soil: to determinate the physical and chemical characteristics of the degraded Lithosol of San Pedro Mixtepec, Oaxaca, where cuachalalate is growing. In sites of 1000 m2 all cuachalalate individuals were registered. These were classified by growing stage (saplings, juveniles and trees). To analyze the size hierarchy, the horizontal and vertical structure of the cuachalalate populations was analyzed. The spatial dispersion of populations was estimated with the Morisita Index. Phenological events were recorded in the trees: foliation, female and male flowering, fruiting and defoliation, during one year (2017 rainy season to 2018 dry season). The cuachalalate presented lower (2.0 to 9.5 m) and upper (10.0 to 16.0 m) vertical structure; the horizontal structure showed that saplings and juveniles have diameters &lt; 2.5 cm, and trees of 5 to 10 cm. The spatial distribution of the populations is aggregated. Flowering occurred during the rainy season, fruiting during rainy to dry season of next year, foliation from dry to rainy season of the same year and defoliation from rainy season to dry season of next year. Degraded lithosols tend to be eroded by runof f, are impermeable and hydrophobic. The piedmont soils have physical and chemical characteristics that highlight incipient accumulation processes, which anticipate a transition to an eutrophic regosol, a favorable soil for the persistence of the low deciduous forest.</p> Verónica Ortega-Baranda Deysi Lizeth de la Cruz-Salinas Angélica Romero-Manzanares Edgar Iván Sánchez-Bernal Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-04-30 2023-04-30 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1595 The challenge to establish tree species in saline soils of the former Texcoco lake <p>Due to high pressure for the urbanization of areas of the saline-sodic soils (SSS) around the former Texcoco lake, Sate of Mexico, it is important to find strategies for tree planting. The aim of the study was to determine the response of five tree species; Pinus greggii, P. pseudostrobus, P. ayacahuite, P. leiophylla and as reference species Psidium guajava, established in holes filled with an alternative substrate (HAS) in SSS. Fif ty holes 1 m depth and 0.60 m in diameter were excavated and filled with an alternative substrate. The pH, electrical conductivity (EC), mechanical resistance (MR), volumetric water content, relative water content (RWC) in plant tissue and survival at 280 days were measured. The HAS presented lower values with respect to the control (SSS): in pH, 8.99 vs. 9.95; in EC, 2.58 vs. 8.19 dS m-1; in volumetric water content, 0.41 vs. 1.06 cm3 cm-3; and in mechanical resistance, 1.72 vs. 2.53 MPa. The RWC increased at 120 days in P. ayacahuite (from 74.7 to 81.5%) and P. leiophylla (75.2 to 77.5%), while in P. guajava it decreased (92.8 to 75.5%). Survival af ter 280 days for P. guajava (70%) exceeded that of pines (1.67%). P. guajava was the species the better performed, whereas pines did not survived salinity. HAS was helpful in the establishment of tree species by providing healthier environment despite the adverse conditions of the SSS.</p> César Ortiz-Torres Armando Gómez-Guerrero Héctor Manuel Ortega-Escobar Javier López-Upton Francisca Ofelia Plascencia-Escalante Tomás Martínez-Trinidad Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-04-30 2023-04-30 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1593 Dry matter production and description of morphological components of two cultivars of the Urochloa hybrid <p>The evaluation of the growth of the improved Cobra and Cayman grasses during the first ten weeks of establishment in the rainy season in the tropics are important to estimate the development of the morphological components, because through these elements it is possible to evaluate their potential biomass production available for feed the cattle. The objective of the present study was to characterize the morphological components and their contribution to biomass production at dif ferent weeks of growth of the cultivars Cayman (CIAT BR02/1752) and Cobra (CIAT&nbsp;BR02/1794), hybrids of the genus Urochloa during the rainy season. The cultivars were established during the rainy season and the percentage of emergence, leaf length (LL), leaf width (LW), plant height (PH), stem diameter (SD) and number of shoots (NS) were evaluated. The morphological components were determined by the destructive method, and leaf dry weight (LDW), stem dry weight (SDW) and root dry weight (RDW) were also evaluated. The data were analysed with the SAS statistical program through PROG GLM, the comparison of means was performed by Tukey’s test. The results showed the variables LL, PH, NS and LW were not dif ferent (P &gt; 0.05) among cultivars at dif ferent weeks. On the other hand, for SD there was no dif ference between cultivars. The Cobra and Cayman cultivars had similar responses in the production of morphological components and dry matter production during the growth periods evaluated during the rainy season.</p> Eliud Flores-Morales Serafín Jacobo López-Garrido Mónica Marcela Galicia-Jiménez Narciso Ysac Ávila-Serrano Marco Antonio Camacho-Escobar Jaime Arroyo-Ledezma Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-04-30 2023-04-30 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1590 Pollutant Removal in Subsurface Flow Artificial Wetlands: A Review <p><span data-sheets-formula-bar-text-style="font-size:16px;color:#000000;font-weight:normal;text-decoration:none;font-family:'Times New Roman';font-style:normal;text-decoration-skip-ink:none;">Artificial wetlands are effective in removing various contaminants from wastewater. In this review study, the latest perspectives on subsurface flow artificial wetlands are analyzed, which use different methodologies for treating contaminated effluents. To achieve this objective, an information search was conducted using keyword filters, during the period from 2015 to 2021. Approximately, 60 studies related to horizontal subsurface flow artificial wetlands were examined, highlighting in the results the mechanisms of contaminant removal. Significant improvements have been obtained in laboratory or pilot scale systems, but the scaling process of these technologies in different configurations should be further explored for efficient elimination and optimal reduction of different contaminants.</span></p> Josué Nava-Rojas Fabiola Lango-Reynoso María del Refugio Castañeda-Chávez Christian Reyes-Velázquez Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1715 Importance of Benzo(a)pyrene in biological systems and its biodegradation <p><span data-sheets-formula-bar-text-style="font-size:16px;color:#000000;font-weight:normal;text-decoration:none;font-family:'Times New Roman';font-style:normal;text-decoration-skip-ink:none;">Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is a highly distributed molecule in ecosystems and a component of products that are used and consumed regularly. Recent studies have shown this xenobiotic metabolized by organisms forming carcinogenic metabolites, as well as having genotoxic and teratogenic ef fects associated with infertility and endocrine disorders. Similarly, due to its dispersion and bioaccumulation, this molecule can severely damage various ecosystems. Therefore, the objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review to demonstrate the importance of BaP in biological systems and its biodegradation as an alternative to bioremediation.</span></p> Adriana Romero-Balboa-Osorio Julia María Alatorre-Cruz Ricardo Carreño-López Silvia María del Carmen García-García Vianey Marín-Cevada Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-08-31 2023-08-31 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1719 Monitoring of Temperature Through a Sensor Network to Improve the Water Usage in Agriculture <p><span data-sheets-formula-bar-text-style="font-size:16px;color:#000000;font-weight:normal;text-decoration:none;font-family:'Times New Roman';font-style:normal;text-decoration-skip-ink:none;">Technological trends are present in dif ferent areas, in the case of agriculture, it is possible to find applications such as automated greenhouses. However, for a large part of small producers in countries with conditions like Mexico, this type of technological advance means a dif ficult investment to make. Fortunately, today, it is possible to improve the productivity of the field with af fordable technology. In this work, the development of electronic devices to measure the temperature inside a 1000 m2 greenhouse is described. These sensors have the capability to form a network, with which the temperature of various points within the greenhouse was obtained. The information collected was concentrated on the internet and through an interpolation algorithm, those areas with the highest temperature were determined. This allowed punctual and localized irrigation therefore making water use ef ficient. These research notes are the first part of a project to develop af fordable electronic devices capable of measuring climatic variables such as temperature, relative humidity, and light, among others. With the data obtained, the evapotranspiration coef ficient can be calculated to estimate the amount of water needed in each crop area.</span></p> Rafael Aguilar-González Marco Cárdenas-Juárez Juan Carlos Rodríguez-Ortiz Mauricio Jesús Romero-Méndez Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-10-06 2023-10-06 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1626 Maize (Zea mays L.) yield in response to soil fertilization with nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon <p>In the state of Guerrero, maize (Zea mays) is planted in dif ferent soil and climatic conditions, at altitudes ranging from sea level to 2880 altitude meters, mainly in a rainfed regime and by producers who use native and improved maize. The objective is to evaluate the ef fect of fertilization with nitrogen and phosphorus in combination with silicon on the yield of corn crop components under the hypothesis that at least one fertilization formula and silicon application to the soil generate an positive ef fect on the size of the corn ear and grain yield. Fertilization consideres two factors; first the Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium (N-P-K) formula with two levels (90-60-00 and 60-40-00); the second was silicon (Si) with three levels (without Si, Fermiphos and Silifosca®), whose combination originated six treatments; which were distributed in a randomized block experimental design with three repetitions. N-P-K fertilization did not statistically af fect the variables evaluated, except for diameter, which was statistically dif ferent and increased by 2% with 90-60-00. The application of silicon (Fermiphos and Silifosca®) increased cob more than 12% in length and 6% in diameter and grain yield 24%. Fertilization with 90-60-00 + silicon (Fermiphos and Silifosca®) increased size and yield from 8 to 32%; while fertilization with 60-40-00 +&nbsp;silicon (Fermiphos and Silifosca®) exceeded the evaluated parameters from 4 to 28%. Increasing the fertilization formula had minimal and inconsistent impacts on ear size. However, the application of Silifosca® or Fermiphos combined with N-P-K fertilization favored positive changes in ear size and grain yield with 90-60-00 and the addition of Silifosca®.</p> Oscar Martín Antúnez-Ocampo Juan Elías Sabino-López Cesar del Ángel Hernández Galeno Mariana Espinosa-Rodríguez Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-07-28 2023-07-28 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1682 Nutrient concentration of two formulations of fermented fertilizers (biols) elaborated with local inputs <p>In the current context of agroecological transition, the use of fermented fertilizers or biols has intensified. The objective of this study was to compare the nutrient concentration of two formulations of fermented fertilizers elaborated with local inputs. Handmade biodigesters were designed and sheep manure and Kikuyo grass (Pennisetum clandestinum) were used. Two formulations were generated: Biol 1 (20% kikuyo grass, 30% sheep manure and 50% water) and Biol 2 (50% sheep manure and 50% water), which were fermented for 100 days and there were three replicates of each formulation. In the biols the organic matter and the concentration of the macronutrients N, P and K, as well as the concentration of the micronutrients Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn were determined. Biol 1 had a higher concentration of organic matter, N and Fe (P ≤ 0.05). It is concluded that the nutrient concentration of the biol was improved when the grass was added in the fermentation process. The use of local, low-cost and easily accessible inputs can be an alternative to produce biols.</p> Bruno Fabián Rojas-Espinoza Mario Alejandro Hernández-Chontal Nereida Rodríguez-Orozco Ariadna Linares-Gabriel Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-07-28 2023-07-28 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1658 Managing Orange Bagasse in the Central Area of Veracruz State <p>Orange cultivation occurs mainly in the State of Veracruz. In Martínez de la Torre and San Rafael municipalities, two of the three most important orange juice producing companies operate in Mexico. The orange bagasse generated by each of these corporations ranges from 112 500 - 187 500 tons per production cycle. Managing large orange bagasse quantities is a major economic and environmental problem for this area of Veracruz. The juice producing companies in the area handle bagasse through heat treatments (dehydration for animal feed and combustion for heat generation). However, when the bagasse handling capacity exceeds, companies choose to deposit it in open dumping sites, posing a risk of contaminating soil, water and air due to biomass putrefaction and leachate generation. Therefore, the objective of this trial is to examine the orange bagasse management practices utilized by the juice producing companies installed in the central area of Veracruz. For this purpose, a literature review was performed together with an internship with one of these companies to collect first-hand data. All management strategies have economic-environmental advantages and disadvantages. Theoretically, the most sustainable alternative is the production and use of natural gas from the bagasse anaerobic digestion. Nevertheless, a life cycle assessment of bagasse management strategies should be performed to determine which alternative is the most appropriate based on economic profitability, environmental impact mitigation and energy efficiency.</p> Luis Alan Galindo-Segura Arturo Pérez-Vázquez Alejandra Ramírez-Martínez Gustavo López-Romero Fernando Carlos Gómez-Merino Copyright (c) 2023 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 41 10.28940/terra.v41i0.1673 Editorial Committee 2023 Alejandro Rodríguez-Barba Copyright (c) 2023-01-31 2023-01-31 41 Portada Interna 2023 Alejandro Rodríguez-Barba Copyright (c) 2023-01-31 2023-01-31 41