REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA <h4><span style="float: right; color: #111111; font-family: 'helvetica neue',helvetica,arial,verdana,sans-serif; font-size: 14.4px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: 18.72px; text-align: justify; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px; display: inline ! important; background-color: #ffffff;">ISSN Electrónico 2395 - 8030.</span></h4> Mexican Society of Soil Science, C.A. en-US REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2395-8030 TERRA Latinoamerica, half a century of history <p><strong>Dear SMCS Colleagues:</strong></p> <p>Dr. Jorge Etchevers and a server thought it was a good idea to document the effort made by each of the editors of Terra Latinoamericana magazine to get where you arrived. A 50-year effort is easy to write, but it has been an epic, since its foundation by Dr. Antonio Turrent Fernández, who with great dedication and effort laid the foundations to achieve the magazine. Colleagues like Dr. Mario Martínez Menes helped us from the spheres of government in the most difficult moments of the magazine. All the editors played a key role in keeping the magazine alive and thriving. To these editors we owe a lot to the researchers in the area of soil science and naturalresources. In this order of ideas, we take the liberty of asking the editors for the testimony of their work in order to get where this scientific journal has come, which is already very close to being accepted into the JCR, which will become a magazine of international stature. We consider that because they are two important pillars in the magazine and that they played an important role in it, we decided to include the testimonies of our beloved Ina Aalmers and Rosa María López Atilano. It is worth reading the testimonials of each editor. Go to all of us with our eternal gratitude.</p> <p><strong>Dr. Javier Z. Castellanos</strong></p> <p>Ex–Presidente SMCS, 2019-2021</p> Javier Z. Castellanos-Ramos Jorge Dionisio Etchevers-Barra Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2022-07-17 2022-07-17 40 10.28940/terra.v40i0.1624 Availability and chemical associations of cadmium in contaminated tropical soils amended with mineral and organic amendments <p>A study was performed to evaluate the variation in pH, availability, and chemical associations of Cd in two previously contaminated Latosols amended with mineral and organic amendments. The Latosols were contaminated with Cd and amended with vermicompost, sugarcane f ilter cake, palm kernel pie, lime, phosphate rock, or zeolite. Cadmium availability was evaluated monthly in the contaminated soil/soil amendment mixtures with the DTPA and Mehlich-3 extractants for twelve months of incubation. At the end of this period, a sequential extraction procedure was performed in the mixtures to identify the Cd forms present in the several geochemical fractions. Lime immobilized Cd at a larger extension (60%), being the metal transferred to less available fractions. The Mehlich-3 extractant had a high correlation (0.96**) with the available fraction examined by the sequential extraction procedure. In general, organic amendments produced small ef fects on the f inal pH of soil/soil amendment mixtures as compared with the initial soil&nbsp;pH. Mineral amendments caused enhancement of soil pH and the most pronounced ef fect occurred with the use of lime.</p> Manuel Danilo Carrillo-Zenteno Raphael Bragança Alves-Fernandes Renildes Lucio Ferreira-Fontes Cláudio Pereira-Jordão Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 40 10.28940/terra.v40i0.928 Adjustment of the Universal Soil Loss Equation in runof f plots located in a region of central Mexico <p>Due to the lack of methods to accurately estimate soil loss in Mexico, experimental studies should be conducted to estimate erosion based on validated data. Therefore, the objective of this research is to estimate the Annual Erosion Rate (A) for various soil covers using the Universal Soil Loss Equation (EUPS) and adjusting its relationship with the Sediment Generation Index (IGS) obtained in experimental batches. The results show that during the period and conditions of this study, EUPS underestimates the value of A, when estimating the erosivity of the rain with the Modif ied Fournier Index (RIMF), in treatments with Natural Vegetation (VN) and Roturation with Esquilmo (RE). Soils without covers evidenced a higher IGS. Likewise, the equations obtained with the relationship IGS vs&nbsp;A, of the treatments with Bare (SD) and Broken Soil (RT) can be used to adjust the edaphic loss rate in soils with the same characteristics as those of the study, complying partially with the objective of this research.</p> Oscar Valdivia-Martínez Gabriel de Jesús Peña-Uribe Fernando Rufino-Rodríguez Jorge Alejandro Torres-González Antonio de Jesús Meraz-Jiménez Armando López-Santos Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 40 10.28940/terra.v40i0.990 Biological indicators of lacustrine and alluvial soils in Venezuela under dif ferent land use. Part 2. Assessment of soil quality <p>The best agricultural soils in Venezuela are located in the Valencia lake basin, but unfortunately for various reasons, such as the use of recycled gray water with or without treatment from urban and industrial origin, they have been subjected to accelerated degradation processes. Detecting the causes of soil deterioration in early stages with biochemical indicators will allow timely corrective measures to be applied. In this work, three suitable measurement tools were adopted with the following mathematical indexes: alteration index (AI3), enzymatic geometric mean and radar diagram area. The quality of the alluvial and lacustrine soils of the lake Valencia basin cultivated with sugar cane and banana was evaluated. The calculation of the indexes was based on the determinations of dehydrogenase, arginine ammonif ication, acid phosphomonoesterase, alkaline phosphomonoesterase, β-glucosidase, urease and protease activities. The estimated quality indexes showed that agricultural use causes a disturbance of the natural balance, the order being: natural vegetation&gt; sugar cane&gt; banana. The alteration index (AI3) and the enzyme geometric mean (MGe) correlated signif icantly with the metabolic ef f iciency quotient. The radar plots for each soil type (lacustrine and alluvial) under both types of land use (sugar cane and banana) conf irmed the results of the other indexes. Soils planted with both crops showed a lower quality compared to the reference soils under native vegetation.</p> Magaly Ruiz-Dager Jorge Emilio Paolini-Gomez Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 40 10.28940/terra.v40i0.967 Evaluation of the sustainability of backyard rabbit farming in the State of Mexico using the IDEA method <p>In small-scale and backyard animal production systems, the evaluation of sustainability is complex, which is why various methods have been generated, one of them the indicators of the sustainability of agricultural exploitations (IDEA), which considers the agroecological, socio-territorial and economic dimensions. Backyard rabbit farming takes place in urban and suburban areas of central Mexico, which is why the objective of this research is to estimate the sustainability indicators of said activity through the IDEA method, which was adapted to be applied to this activity. livestock. Three dimensions were considered, agroecological, socio-territorial and economic, each with indicators whose maximum value is 100 points, 50 producers from the eastern zone of the State of Mexico were interviewed, the data obtained were weighted and analyzed through descriptive statistics. In the agroecological dimension (42.54) the following indicators were obtained: annual average of kits 1183, races with greater presence (62%) New Zealand, California and Mariposa, use of manure as fertilizer 66% of the producers. The socio-territorial dimension (57.82) showed that 72% of the producers have a good quality of life, in 96% of the cases family labor is used, they dedicate 2.32 hours day-1 to the activity, 86% have good relations with their community and 58% consider little intergenerational transmissibility. Finally, the economic dimension (50.24) showed that the perception of income is generated by the sale of live animals (71.7%) at a price of $93.30 m. n. per piece, carcass sales (28.2%) at $112.42 m. n. per piece and to a lesser extent, sale of rabbits and other derivatives. Based on the results, it is concluded that backyard rabbit farming is an option that can promote development in the region based on the identification and use of areas of opportunity on an agroecological scale.</p> Georgina Gutiérrez-García Enrique Espinosa-Ayala Ofelia Márquez-Molina Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2022-09-13 2022-09-13 40 10.28940/terra.v40i0.946 Chemical characterization of the fruit shell of Jatropha curcas <p>Jatropha curcas L. has a great potential which lies in its high oil content for the production of biodiesel. To extract J. curcas oil, it is necessary to peel the seeds, and since this coproduct represents 2.0% of the total weight, it is important to look for options for its use. The previous step to any action in this sense is to know its bromatological values and the presence of total phenolic compounds. During a period of two years (2017-2018) at the Experimental Station of Pastures and Forages Indio Hatuey a study was carried out on the determination of the chemical composition of the fruit shell of J. curcas. The objective of this work was to characterize the chemical composition of the fruit shell of J. curcas. The samples were obtained randomly from a plantation with more than two years of established from ripe fruits dehydrated in the sun. The values obtained were, in percentage, humidity 12.35; ashes 5.48; crude protein 3.71; crude f iber 77.17; cellulose 33.71; hemicellulose 9.65; holocellulose 43.36; lignin 47.53; extractive 5.55; Na 0.78; K 4.51; Ca 0.59; Si 0.08; S 0.03; P 0.72 and total phenolic compounds 1.89. The results indicate the f ibrous components as predominant, the contents of acceptable minerals, and the contributions of crude protein discrete. The high phenolic composition suggested the need to deepen, from the qualitative and quantitative point of view, the organic elements that compose it and determine if there is presence of phorbol esters on it.</p> Rosa María Rodríguez-Calle Jesús Suárez-Hernández Jesús Manuel Iglesias-Gómez Gabriela Rodríguez-Licea Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2022-08-29 2022-08-29 40 10.28940/terra.v40i0.958 Evaluation of biodiversity in a farm in agroecological transition <p>A study was carried out at the in agroecological transition El Renacer farm, in the Perico municipality, Matanzas, with the objective of evaluating the functionality of some of the components of ecological biodiversity and the sustainability of its economic dimension. The farm has a total area of 43.5 ha; 40 of them dedicated to livestock. The rest is dedicated to crops (0.5 ha), fruit trees (1.5 ha), forestry (1.0) and facilities (0.5 ha). The functionality of biodiversity was evaluated, based on an analysis model that included the components: tree diversity, production diversity and species richness. Through a diagnosis, which included tours, semi-structured interviews and observation, the number of individuals of each species was quantif ied, which were characterized according to their functionality within the system. For the calculation of economic sustainability, the indicators were standardized and weighted according to their importance. Shannon’s indices for tree diversity (2.06) and Margalef’s for species richness (4.50) demonstrated that the system can be considered as high species richness and sustainable, while the diversity index production (1.46) showed that the farm is not self-sufficient, from the point of view of the development of the agricultural subsystem. The economic dimension reached a value of 3.56, close to what was expected for a sustainable farm. In a general sense, the values of the indicators of diversity of the agroecosystem were optimal and demonstrate its functionality, represented by diversif ication and agriculture-livestock integration, although it is recommended to expand the area destined to agricultural crops, to achieve greater self-sufficiency food.</p> Jesús Manuel Iglesias-Gómez Odalys Caridad Toral-Pérez Gabriela Rodríguez-Licea Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2022-08-29 2022-08-29 40 10.28940/terra.v40i0.957 Genomic analysis and genetic characterization of first infectious pancreatic necrosis virus Mexican isolate <p>Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus is one of the most important infectious agents in the salmon and trout industry since it causes high mortality in f irst-fed calves. In Mexico, it is the only viral disease that af fects rainbow trout, therefore, information on the characterization and genetic origin of the viral isolates that circulate in our country have already been described, however, an analysis with the complete genome no, which is why this research work aims to analyze the complete genome of the infectious pancreatic necrosis virus that commonly circulates in the country. Based on the genetic relationships of a prototype of this virus isolated in Mexico in relation to other isolates that circulate worldwide, it was found that the Mexican isolate of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus belongs to genogroup I and originates from the Buhl strain.</p> Linda Bautista-Gómez César Ortega-Santana José Simón Martínez-Castañeda Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2022-08-29 2022-08-29 40 10.28940/terra.v40i0.956 Competitiveness and value added in Persian cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in contract farming: case study <p>The Mexican cucumber is one of the main vegetables that generate foreign exchange for the country, since more than 90% of national production is exported to the United States of North America (USA) and generates a wide economic spill in the producing region, due to the jobs that demand. The objective was to quantify the prof itability and competitiveness of two greenhouses where Persian cucumbers are grown, one from the State of Mexico and the other from Morelos, which have a contract farming agreement with a commercial integrator. The Policy Analysis Matrix (MAP) was used at private prices. The results show that the cultivation of Persian cucumber in the larger greenhouse had a private prof itability coef f icient of (CRP) of 42% and the smaller one was 27%, while the private cost ratios (RCP) were 0.61 for the f irst and 0.71 for the second, conf irming that this type of cultivation, in the contract farming modality, is prof itable and competitive, with the greatest competitiveness being observed in the greenhouse with a larger surface area.</p> Samuel Rebollar-Rebollar Orsohe Ramírez-Abarca Juvencio Hernández-Martínez Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2022-08-29 2022-08-29 40 10.28940/terra.v40i0.952 Competitiveness analysis in roses systems (Rosa sp) in a Mexican environment <p>Within the framework of foreign trade, f loriculture is one of the agricultural activities that produces more high-value crops, creates more direct and indirect jobs and, consequently, generates income. In this context, the present research work aims to analyze the competitiveness at private prices of cut rose plantations, located territorially in the towns of Tenancingo and Villa Guerrero, State of Mexico. Through work carried out in the f ield, information was obtained from the organization related to costs, income, socioeconomic and market indicators during March-May 2019; Likewise, a representative sample of producers from Tenancingo and the Association of Floriculturists of Villa Guerrero A.C., with more than 29 years of work as floriculturists, was taken. For the analysis of the results, a Policy Analysis Matrix was structured in order to estimate the income, costs and prof its at private prices. The results revealed that there is no difference in production costs or prof its between the national and international markets, since the use of the properties has been prof itable and competitive, in addition to the above, in both scenarios the internal factors of production represented more than 80% of the costs, including and excluding the cost of land and labor, which represented the largest part of the resources, followed by transportation expenses. Considering that the competitiveness of the systems was based on the use of labor that replaced technological and capitalization advances, it follows that the competitiveness and profitability for both systems is marginal.</p> Ana Luisa Velázquez-Torres Nicolás Callejas-Juárez Francisco Ernesto Martínez-Castañeda Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2022-08-29 2022-08-29 40 10.28940/terra.v40i0.948 Selenium levels in soil, grass and sheep: Inf luence of Se supplementation on the IgG concentration in pregnant ewes and lambs <p>The effect generated by the def iciency of Selenium (Se) in the soil and in the forages on the yields of sheep production justif ies the analysis of the levels of this microelement in the soil, pasture and sheep in dif ferent regions of the State of Mexico from of the evaluation of the enzymatic activity of GHS-Px and the inf luence of Se supplementation on IgG concentration in pregnant ewes and lambs. The results show that Mexiquense soils and forages present Se def iciencies at levels of ±0.02 and 0.03±0.12 mg kg-1, respectively. The levels of Se and the average GSH-Px activity in the blood of sheep subjected only to grazing were equally def icient with values of 0.02 ± 0.04 mg kg-1 and 51.54 ± 24.55 U g-1 Hb. Statistically signif icant GSH-Px values were observed between groups from different regions and sheep breeds, being higher in creole sheep compared to Suf folk (P &lt; 0.05). There were no statistically signif icant dif ferences in Se values in soil and grass, according to soil type, pH, organic matter content or stages of higher rainfall. The sodium selenite supplement at a rate of 5 mg mL-1 x 100 kilograms of weight in pregnant sheep allowed to identify signif icant statistical dif ferences (P &lt; 0.01) in the Se levels of the treated animals in relation to the negative control, but enough for the supplemented animals to consistently reach the recommended levels of this element. IgG levels increased in animals supplemented with Se but no statistical dif ferences were observed between groups. From the foregoing, it follows that it is an important nutrient in sheep farming, so adequate doses should be administered to the herds to improve productivity in the Mexican production units.</p> Soledad Díaz-Zarco Roberto Montes de Oca-Jiménez Maria Carla Rodríguez-Domínguez Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2022-07-29 2022-07-29 40 10.28940/terra.v40i0.950 Competitiveness of avocado (Persea americana Mill) in Mexican tropical rain forest region <p>The avocado is considered as a prof itable production system and job generator. This fruit is part of the policy of productive reconversion of the State of Mexico. The objective was to evaluate the prof itability and competitiveness at private prices of small-scale in the Tropical Forest Region of the Mexico. the policy analysis matrix was used in its f irst line. The system were agruped into distances and ages. The highest prof itability was $ 23 726 mexican pesos in young systems with distance of 6 meters and the worst performance was $ -24 438 mexican pesos in system of 8 meters distance and from 7 to 9 years of age. The system between 4 and 6 years of age are prof itable and competitive favors the expansion of the cultivar. The plantations older than 10 years of age recorder negative indicators. The yield was evaluated with a split-plot design. No statistical dif ference in yield between the plantations.</p> Francisco Ernesto Martínez-Castañeda Francisco García-Matias Ana Luisa Velázquez-Torres Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2022-07-29 2022-07-29 40 10.28940/terra.v40i0.947 The corn-ovine backyard production system in Mazahuas’ towns from the State of Mexico <p>The corn-ovine production system is an alternative for producers by improving the income with ovine sale, giving an added value to corn production by feeding the sheep with grains and debris. The objective in this research was to describe the corn-ovine backyard production system of municipalities in the State of Mexico. The research was done in the municipalities of Villa Victoria and San José del Rincón in the north-east of the State of Mexico with producers who participated in the Territorial Development Program (PRODETER) “Sustainable ovine production”; the f ieldwork was from august 2019 to march 2020. This research was exploratory and descriptive. The information was obtained through interviews, visits to the production units and the application of 87 questionnaires. To analyze the information descriptive statistics was used. The results have shown that 22% were surveyed women and 78% were men with an average age of 47.1 years old; in sheep production it was 19.5 years old, who mainly produce maize with a yield of two tons per hectare, which is also used to feed their family and the sheep, mainly in the low water months. 95% of the producers herds their sheep around 4.4 hours a day. They sell sheep when there is an economical need, when income resources are needed for the children’s school; or for a family gathering. The main problem which producers face in sheep production is commercialization, because sheep and lamb are not well-paid.</p> Encarnación Ernesto Bobadilla-Soto Fernando Ochoa-Ambriz Mauricio Perea-Peña Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2022-07-29 2022-07-29 40 10.28940/terra.v40i0.945 Critic operation points of the “new rural extension” program in Michoacán <p>In Mexico there is no model of rural extensionism designed according to the conditions and aspects of the country; only adaptations of extension systems based on models of developed countries such as the United States (USA) have emerged, which have not allowed obtaining the expected results; For this reason, the objective of this work is to identify and analyze the critical points of the operation of the “New Rural Extensionism” program implemented in the state of Michoacán. The extension process of the 2018‑2019 exercise was analyzed, the information was obtained through participant observation, field visits, participatory workshops; and, analysis, discussion and documentary review of the operation of the state component under study. When carrying out the analysis, the three main critical points of the current extension model that af fected the operation of the program in the state were identif ied, which were: inexistence of an adequate evaluation of the impact of the “New Rural Extension” on agricultural production, disarticulation of the universities and research institutes, which generates the absence of methodological support and the absence of an adequate evaluation of the extensionist’s performance. Despite being based on holistic concepts, the ef forts are scattered and disjointed given that the purposes have focused on the number of producers served as a goal and on the producer as a factor adopting the technology under an intervention with a linear approach.</p> Fernando Ochoa-Ambriz Encarnación Ernesto Bobadilla-Soto Mauricio Perea-Peña Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2022-07-29 2022-07-29 40 10.28940/terra.v40i0.944 Induction of minituber production by rhizobacteria inoculation in yam plants (Dioscorea rotundata Poir) <p>Yam cultivation is of high importance for the food security of rural families in the Caribbean region of Colombia. One of the main technological problems faced by small yam producers is the low quality and availability of seed for planting. The present work was carried out to evaluate the technology of minitubers production in yam seedlings generated from cuttings, by induction with rhizobacteria. For this purpose, the phytohormone production capacity of three rhizobacteria, identif ied with the codes DCR11 (Azotobacter vinelandii), DSC21 (Brevibacillus laterosporus), and DSC1 (Bacillus licheniformis), was initially evaluated in vitro, and once their capacity was verif ied, an experiment was established under mesh house conditions to induce, with rhizobacteria, the production of mini-tubers in yam seedlings under three levels of shading. A completely randomized experimental design with subdivided plots and three replications was used, where the main plot corresponded to the shade levels (0, 65 and 80%), the subplots to the rhizobacteria (DCR11 A. vinelandii, DSC1 B. licheniformis, DSC21 B. laterosporus), and the sub-subplots at the inoculum doses (0, 2, 4 and 6 mL pl-1). The in vitro results demonstrated the potential of rhizobacteria to produce cytokines and auxins. In mesh house, the capacity of yam seedlings to produce mini-tubers was demonstrated, where the rhizobacteria DSC1 B. licheniformis and DSC21 B. laterosporus showed greater induction capacity. The results demonstrated the feasibility of minitubers production in yam seedlings under mesh house conditions by induction with rhizobacteria, and therefore, its validation at a semi-commercial level is recommended as a strategy for mass production of yam minitubers, as an alternative for the planting of commercial crops.</p> Diana Beatriz Sánchez-López Lily Lorena Luna-Castellanos Jose Jaime Tapia-Coronado Abelardo Tulio Diaz-Cabadiaz María del Valle Rodríguez-Pinto Jorge Cadena-Torres Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2022-07-29 2022-07-29 40 10.28940/terra.v40i0.1446 Agronomic behavior of bell pepper cultivars (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivated in open f ield and under protected conditions <p>The bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivars grown in Colombia come from countries with temperate zones, which limits their production in climate and agroecological conditions of the country, since they do not reach their adaptability and potential yield, due to factors that af fect gene expression. In Colombia, 95% of bell peppers are sowed in open f ield. However, farmers seek to improve their yields by growing them under protected condition with plastic cover and natural ventilation. Therefore the objective of this study is to evaluate fruit yield and pest and disease incidence of four bell pepper cultivars (BG2, Cuadrado rojo, Cacique and Nathalie) grown under three types of environments: open f ield in 2014 and protected in two cycles (2013 and 2014). The trials were conducted under multilocation trials with a randomized complete block design (RCBD) at La Selva Research Center (AGROSAVIA), located in Rionegro-Antioquia (Colombia). The following variables were measured: fruit yield, number, length and diameter per category. Incidence of pests and diseases were also recorded. No signif icant statistical dif ferences were found among yields obtained under the dif ferent environments. The genetic ef fect of cultivars was more determinant than the ef fect of environments on yield variables. In protected environments, Cacique and Nathalie cultivars had the highest yield, while BG2 and Cuadrado rojo had the highest rejected fruit yield. The incidence of the main pests and diseases was irregular, which was higher under protected conditions and had no direct connection with the cultivars.</p> Jaime Lozano-Fernández Luz Fanny Orozco-Orozco Nancy Yohana Grisales-Vásquez Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2022-07-29 2022-07-29 40 10.28940/terra.v40i0.1459 Concentration and transfer of heavy metals in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) irrigated with treated <p>Heavy metals can be found in agricultural soils, absorbed and accumulated by crops, representing a public health risk. This research aimed to study the influence of agricultural practices on the concentration of heavy metals cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in lettuce irrigated with treated water and determined the level of risk to human health. Four treatments were evaluated: (1) Flood irrigation without mulch and compost; (2) Drip irrigation without mulching with compost; (3) Drip irrigation with mulch without compost; (4) Drip irrigation with mulch and compost. The detected concentrations of Cd, Cr, Pb and Zn in the edible part of lettuce exceeded the maximum permissible levels in vegetables established by the European Union reference. In the case of Cd, it showed a high capacity to be transferred from the soil to the plant, which represents an even greater health risk. The agronomic practices of drip irrigation, using water from a wastewater treatment plant, plastic mulch and organic fertilizer slightly reduce the concentration and transfer rate of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in the edible part of lettuce, promoting an increase in biomass production, which in turn affects the dilution of heavy metals in plant tissues.</p> Marcos Loredo-Tovías Jorge Alonso Alcalá-Jáuregui María Elena García-Arreola Fernando de Jesús Carballo-Méndez Humberto Rodríguez-Fuentes Alain Buendía-García Juan Carlos Rodríguez-Ortiz Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2022-07-17 2022-07-17 40 10.28940/terra.v40i0.1045 Effect of inoculated green manures on the chemical properties of an ferric luvisol from Campeche, México <p>An experiment was carried out in the f ield with the objective of evaluating the ef fects of the application of three green legume fertilizers on some chemical properties in an iron luvisol (K’an kab in Mayan), representative of the agricultural areas of the state of Campeche. A randomized complete block design was used with seven treatments: Mucuna pruriens L., Vigna unguiculata L. and Phaseolus lunatus inoculated or not with endomycorrhizae and benef icial nitrogen-f ixing bacteria, compared with the control constituted by the incorporation of weeds plus diammonium phosphate (DAP). The results show that all the studied soil properties: organic matter (MOS), electrical conductivity (CE), pH characteristics, as well as the determination of the macronutrient content (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Na), micronutrients (B, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn), add exchangeable bases (meq/100 g) and the C:N ratio, behaved in a similar way in statistical terms (P &lt; 0.05). The green manures achieved nutrient contributions comparable to the fertilization that combined the DAP with the incorporated biomass of weeds, which shows that the use of green manures, even of legume species cultivated as food in the agroecosystems of the Yucatan Peninsula, can replace conventional fertilization in ferric luvisols from Campeche, Mexico.</p> Gilberto Matos-Pech Enrique Arcocha-Gómez Mónica Beatriz López-Hernández Patricia Garma-Quen Noel Antonio González-Valdivia Elías de Jesús Echavarría-Góngora Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 40 10.28940/terra.v40i0.933 Lead levels in water, soil and grass from Valle de Lerma, State of Mexico municipalities, dedicated to livestock <p>In the State of Mexico, the towns near the Lerma River stand out for their industrial development, which leads to the contamination of water and soil, af fecting livestock production in the area. Based on this approach, the objective of this research work is to determine the levels of Lead (Pb) in water (mg L-1), soil and grass (mg Kg-1), for the municipalities with basins of the Lerma River, State of Mexico. The highest average levels of Pb in water were observed for El Cerrillo Vistahermosa (1.5 ± 0.4), followed by Lerma (1.0 ± 0.2) and San Pedro Tultepec (1.0 ± 0.3). The average level of Pb in water is within the permissible concentration range for water for agricultural use; however, the environmental levels are high, ref lecting an important bioaccumulation in the soil, with higher values in San Pedro Tultepec (40.7 ± 18.0) and therefore in the pasture. Lerma was the municipality with the highest concentration (38.2 ± 6.9), which makes it a source of risk for animal and human health. The localities bordering the Lerma River show notable differences in Pb levels, with higher concentrations being observed in areas with greater permanence of water in El Cerrillo Vistahermosa and San Pedro Tultepec. Finally, it was found that the Pb obtained in water, soil and grass are above the maximum permissible range in more than 50% of the samples, ref lecting an important emission of this element to the environment.</p> Roberto Montes de Oca-Jiménez Jhonny Edgar Pérez-Rodríguez María Carla Rodríguez-Domínguez Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 40 10.28940/terra.v40i0.949 Analysis of soil quality in the intensive production of chile (Capsicum annuum L.) in the region irrigated by the aquifer, Calera, Zacatecas, México <p>In Mexico, the productive systems of chili (Capsicum spp.) have been gradually intensif ied in order to obtain better yields and generate higher incomes, a situation that has positioned the country as the second producer and main exporter of chili in the world, generating on average per year around two billion pesos for exports; however, the intensif ication of some practices associated with this agricultural activity have generated infertility and salinization of the soil, which is why the objective of the research is to evaluate the agronomic quality of the soil in dif ferent chili-producing areas in the Calera del Aquifer region. Zacatecas state. During two consecutive cycles, soil sampling was carried out in accordance with NOM-021-RECNAT-2000 in plots destined for chili cultivation in order to determine fertility and physicochemical parameters. The results provided evidence of the variety of agrochemicals and the surplus of phosphorous and potassium fertilizers that are applied during the production cycle, a situation that considerably raises costs. The salt content found in the soil was low with a medium sodium absorption ratio, which classif ies them as C1-S2; high concentrations of sodium salts were not recorded and EC values were low, however, nutrient concentrations were very low despite the neutral pH. These characteristics can be attributed to the fact that they are soils with a high content of sand with compaction problems due to the conventional mechanized system and due to the lack of conservation strategies, therefore, the dynamics to produce chili in the region is having a negative impact. on soil quality.</p> Cristina J. Carrillo-Martínez Gregorio Álvarez-Fuentes Gisela Aguilar-Benítez Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 40 10.28940/terra.v40i0.942 Analysis of the eff iciency of the cow-calf system in Mexico <p>Enveloping data analysis is a technique that allows productivity to be analyzed in terms of relative eff iciency, eff iciency, quality, and economy to solve the productivity of production systems. The objective of the research was to analyze the economic and technical eff iciency of 13 representative units of production (URP) cow-calf in Mexico through The Enveloping Data Analysis (DEA) to test the hypothesis whether URPs with a larger production scale are more eff icient than those of lower production scale and the amount of ineff iciency. The production scales of the URPs were 35 to 500 cows in production and located in the f ive main producers of the cow-calf system. The most economically eff icient URPs were TM70, TM100 and VE150; with higher JA35 technical eff iciency and higher overall eff iciency JA35, CH40, TM70, TM100 and VE150. The average economic eff iciency was 73.7±18.2%, the technique 44.6±27.4% and total 87.1±16.6%, meaning that URPs can increase their economic eff iciency by 18.2%, technical eff iciency 55.4% and total efficiency 16.6%; to have the most eff icient URP productivity. In addition, using either input provided the same total eff iciency parameters. Therefore, producers of the cow-calf system in Mexico have their greatest opportunity for growth and development by improving technical parameters; although they can also do so, but to a lesser proportion, with economic parameters</p> Nicolás Callejas-Juárez Aideé Callejas-Martínez Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 40 10.28940/terra.v40i0.941 Influence of biocrusts on the CO2 flux in the microphyllous desert shrubland of the Mexican plateau <p>Carbon dioxide (CO2) in the soil is produced by mineralization of organic matter and by respiration of soil organisms. Biocrusts contribute to this f lux and is a key factor for the functioning of arid and semi‑arid ecosystems. This research was conducted in an area of microphyllous desert shrubland in northeastern Mexico. Four microenvironments were selected: open area without biocrusts (Aa), open area with biocrusts (AaC), under plant without biocrusts (Bp) and under plant with biocrusts (BpC). The biocrusts were mainly constituted by lichens and cyanobacteria. The following hypotheses were tested: i) biocrusts contribute to soil respiration in these areas to a greater extent than vascular plants; ii) soil respiration is higher in biocrusts microenvironments than in open areas without biocrusts; iii) soil respiration rates increase as soil temperature increases, regardless of the presence/&nbsp;absence of biocrusts. Soil respiration was measured in situ using an EGM-4 equipment with a closed soil respiration chamber. Data were analyzed by Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests. The relationship between temperature and soil respiration rate was evaluated with a Spearman correlation analysis. Statistical analyzes were performed in the SPSS® Statistics version 19 software. The results showed that the average respiration rate was higher in soil with biocrusts than in soils lacking biocrusts, with 3.03 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. Respiration rates dif fered between microsites. AaC, BpC and Bp microenvironments reached equal respiration rates among them and were overall higher than the soil respiration rates in Aa, except for Bp, which showed similar values. The results also showed a positive relationship between soil respiration and temperature for all microenvironments. We conclude that the respiration rates were higher in areas with biocrust coverage ≥ 40%, compared with soil without biocrusts, both in the presence and absence of vascular plants.</p> Maritza Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez Dinorah O. Mendoza-Aguilar Marisela Pando-Moreno Humberto González-Rodríguez Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2022-06-04 2022-06-04 40 10.28940/terra.v40i0.1211 Mexican experience in the implementation of the RothC-26.3 model of the dynamics of organic carbon in soils: scope and limitations <p>The use of models of the dynamics of organic carbon in soils has been emphasized for the implementation of different public programs, including greenhouse gas inventories. The RothC 26.3 model (RothC) is one of the most used worldwide in the study of C dynamics. The objective of this study was to make a synthesis of the performance of the RothC model in predicting changes in SOC in plots, sites, systems and regions. As well as application in scenarios of land use change (LUC) and cropping systems using short-term (&lt;20 years) databases and over a 40-year time period. In the plots the average initial SOCL (SOCinitial) was used by plot (CIPLOT) and SOCinitial at each sampling point (CIPT). The systems evaluated were agricultural, forestry, prairie and pasture. In the regions, the IPCC method was used and the RothC model method was used with partial information from the IPCC method. The simulation scenarios tested included LUC from traditional tillage to (i) agroforestry systems with castor, (ii) plantations of tropical tree species, and (iii) conservation tillage. LUC scenarios from secondary vegetation to tillage systems and scenarios with quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) and amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) crops were also tested. The results of the RothC model performance showed slightly better fit of the predictions when using CIPT, difficulty in modeling pastures and some tillage systems, and a high correlation between the methods used at the regional scale. Regarding the tested scenarios, the obtained trends and rates of SOC change coincided with estimations of other studies. In Mexico, it is necessary to consider the scope of the RothC model estimations of SOC changes based on its performance at different geographic scales, in different cropping systems and in different vegetation types.</p> Lucila González-Molina Fernando Carrillo-Anzures Miguel Acosta-Mireles Aurelio Báez-Pérez Eduardo Espitia-Rangel Jorge D. Etchevers-Barra Fernando Paz-Pellat Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2022-04-18 2022-04-18 40 10.28940/terra.v40i0.1386 Soil formation from tepetates: structural unities, organic carbon, and structural stability <p>The formation of soils from hardened layers of volcanic origin -tepetates- broken, depends on the management system that is used to enable it to be implemented for agricultural or livestock use, so the development of models that allow understanding the transformation of structural units, from fragments to aggregates, is of great importance. From this perspective, the present work proposes and justifies the use of a kinetic model of order n, to model the distribution of mass and organic carbon in the structural units of tepetates under cultivation and predict their evolution towards soil formation. The validation of the model and the proposed relationships were carried out from the comparison of the dynamics of structuring in tepetate, with different case studies, which include substrates with different characteristics, such as soils, degraded soil and loamy marl. The modeling results were highly favorable (R2 &gt; 0.98). The temporal evolution of the cementing agent in the substrates -organic carbon- as well as structural stability, according to the proposed model define patterns that are directly associated with the evolution of soil formation with the level of aggregation. In short-term experiments (≤ 2 years), the analyses highlight the participation of other agents, in addition to organic carbon, that control the mechanisms of aggregation, so an extension of the proposed model was reviewed, to consider this scenario.</p> Alma S. Velázquez-Rodríguez Aurelio Báez-Pérez Claudia Hidalgo-Moreno Mayra Parsa-Retana Jorge D. Etchevers-Barra Fernando Paz-Pellat Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2022-04-18 2022-04-18 40 10.28940/terra.v40i0.1447 Patterns of the distribution of organic carbon by fractions of primary soil particles <p>In order to analyze the dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) associated with changes in land use / vegetation and management practices, it is necessary to develop models that can be used predictively. A modeling approach is the distribution of SOC by physical fractions of the primary organomineral complexes (clays, silts and sands), using ultrasound soil dispersion techniques, where it is necessary to optimize the sonication energies to achieve complete soil dispersion. Under this consideration of complete dispersion, the COLPOS model and its hypothesis are discussed, as well as its possible extensions when considering the masses and enrichments of the physical fractions of the soil, in addition to the analysis of the relationships between these fractions. To analyze the patterns associated with the COLPOS model and its extensions, the available Mexican soil fractionations using ultrasound are analyzed, in addition to three databases of similar fractionations published in the literature. The results show that the COLPOS model can be parameterized according to the size and mass of the soil particles; although for the case of the masses some results are inconsistent. From the analysis of the organic carbon ratios between fractions for two different kinetics, the relationships show greater dispersion than for the case of only kinetic fractions.</p> Fernando Paz-Pellat Sara Covaleda Claudia Hidalgo-Moreno Francisco Matus Aurelio Báez Alma S. Velázquez-Rodríguez Jorge D. Etchevers-Barra Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2022-04-18 2022-04-18 40 10.28940/terra.v40i0.1322 Soil organic carbon depth distribution patterns in different land uses and management <p>The distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) at depth is important to define carbon stocks and for analyzing the impacts of different destabilization mechanisms and processes. The modeling of the vertical distribution of the SOC has been approximated by empirical approaches or using first order kinetic models with multi-compartments. This paper introduces a kinetic model of n order, which generalizes previous developments of use of a single compartment. The model is adjusted to soil profiles of the Hillside Sustainable Management Project in the Sierra Norte of Oaxaca, Mexico, in three microbasins of the Mazateca, Cuicateca and Mixe regions. Sampling protocols, experimental design, systems and laboratory are presented. The kinetic model of n order was adjusted well to the experimental data (R2 &gt; 0.99), although high variability (horizontal and vertical) was found, which was discussed as a possible relationship with the position of the field sampling points.</p> Miguel Acosta-Mireles Fernando Paz-Pellat Claudia Hidalgo-Moreno Jorge D. Etchevers-Barra Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2022-04-18 2022-04-18 40 10.28940/terra.v40i0.1321 Parameterization of the dynamics of the COLPOS model through chronosequences of land use and vegetation change <p>The modeling of soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics is a critical step to analyze CO2 emissions projections associated with changes in land use and vegetation (USyV). The COLPOS model was developed to estimate the distribution of SOC associated with physical soil fractions, but it was not extended to a dynamic version. This paper presents the development of the dynamic COLPOS model, generated from a review of the solutions of the ordinary differential equations of the SOC dynamics models with two stocks, one active and the other inert. With the use of chronosequences of USyV changes, where the decomposition and absorption processes of COS were separated by using techniques that use a stable isotope (13C), an adjustment of the developed model was carried out, obtaining satisfactory results (R2 &gt; 0.9). The COLPOS dynamic model only has one adjustment parameter and was formulated based on measurable laboratory data, so its operational use is viable.</p> Fernando Paz-Pellat Jorge D. Etchevers-Barra Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2022-04-18 2022-04-18 40 10.28940/terra.v40i0.1320 Soil organic carbon for different depths in a sequence of disturbance and reference sites <p>Soil organic carbon (SOC) at depth can be destabilized by various climatic or anthropogenic factors, so it is necessary to characterize it properly. The modeling of the vertical distribution of the SOC has generally been approximated using empirical approaches to mathematical model adjustments. This scheme is used to characterize the SOC at depth in different land uses and it is analyzed, but with an incremental approach of introducing constraints in the experimental adjustment, by nonlinear regression. The boundary conditions introduced (for zero and infinity depth) allow parameterizing models with physicochemical and biological sense. The best models selected in the progressive adjustment process were reviewed to analyze the congruence of their parameters, arguing that their bases are not clear to characterize the dynamics of the SOC. As an alternative, a reaction kinetics of variable order n was introduced in the experimental settings, obtaining good results (R2 &gt; 0.99) and clear patterns in the relationships between order n and the kn reaction rate of the alternative model.</p> Edgar Barrales-Brito Fernando Paz Pellat Alma S. Velázquez-Rodríguez Claudia Hidalgo-Moreno Jorge D. Etchevers-Barra Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2022-04-18 2022-04-18 40 10.28940/terra.v40i0.1319 Silicon and chlorine on growth, yield and postharvest quality of cucumber and tomato <p>An increase in photosynthetic capacity, a decrease in transpiration rate, greater growth of plants and increase in yields and quality of crops are effects caused by silicon (Si) and chlorine (Cl). These beneficial effects caused by both elements depend on species and genotypes within a species. Therefore, the objective of the research was to determine the effect of silicon and chlorine, individually or in combination, as well as which are the most effective doses in growth, yield and postharvest quality of cucumber and tomato. The cultivars ‘Paraíso F1’ and ‘tomate F3’ were sown, watered every 24 h and fertilized with 200 kg ha-1 of N and 2 L ha-1 of Micro-Min foliar (20-30-10) on the 36th and 56th day after planting. In both experiments, a randomized complete block design was established, managed in drip irrigation. Treatments consisted of 20, 30 and 50 mg L-1 of Si or Cl and combinations of 20:20 and 30:30 mg L-1 of Si:Cl, plus the control. The highest dose of Si and the three doses of Cl or two of Si:Cl were more effective to induce growth in cucumber, although in regard to yield, the most suitable were the two highest doses of Si and the three of Cl. In tomato, the lowest dose of Cl induced a slight increase in leaf greenness, the two nutrients decreased height, and the highest dose of Si:Cl was more effective to slightly increase the leaf area, however, the yield did not increase. With regards to total soluble solids, the highest dose of Cl and the lowest combination of Si:Cl caused a better response in cucumber; however, in tomato only the lowest dose of Cl caused the highest response.</p> Luz Llarely Cázarez-Flores Leopoldo Partida-Ruvalcaba Teresa de Jesús Velázquez-Alcaraz Felipe Ayala-Tafoya Tomás Díaz-Valdés Moisés Gilberto Yáñez-Juárez Carlos Alfonso López-Orona Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2022-04-13 2022-04-13 40 10.28940/terra.v40i0.994 Growth, yield, and profitability of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) fertilized with chemical and biological sources <p>Zucchini is a vegetable of great agricultural and social relevance in Mexico, hence, the implementation of alternatives such as the use of products of biological origin, can contribute to the improvement and increase of profits in this crop. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of chemical and biological fertilization on the growth, yield, and profitability of the zucchini crop. The study was established under irrigation in Tlayacapan, Morelos, Mexico, where seedlings of Italian zucchini variety Adelita were transplanted. The treatments consisted of the application of seaweed extract [Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jolis] and Rhizophagus irregularis (Błaszk., Wubet, Renker &amp; Buscot) C. Walker &amp; A. Schüßler (2010) to the soil mixed with chemical fertilizers. A random complete block design with four repetitions was used. To evaluate crop growth and leaf area dry matter per plant was recorded, with which the growth rate of the crop, absolute growth rate, crop yield, weight, diameter, and length of the fruit were determined. In addition, an economic analysis was performed to determine the profitability of each treatment. Overall, it was observed that the application of 100% chemical fertilization promoted the largest leaf area, fresh plant weight, dry matter, absolute growth rate, crop growth rate, yield, and fruit weight in zucchini cultivation, which caused improved profitability. Fertilization with seaweed complemented chemical fertilization and generated a better response in the variables evaluated compared to R. irregularis.</p> Cid Aguilar-Carpio Yessica Flor Cervantes-Adame Pedro Jordan Sorza-Aguilar José Alberto Salvador Escalante-Estrada Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2022-04-13 2022-04-13 40 10.28940/terra.v40i0.1059 Soil straw incorporation, seed zinc inoculation and nitrogen fertilization on wheat grown under soil saline conditions <p>In regions with soil salinity problems, continuous improvement of physical and chemical soil properties, seed germination improvement, as well as efficient fertilization management should aid in increasing crop yield. Thus, the objective of this study is to assess the effects of soil straw incorporation (SI) (0 and 5000 kg ha‑1), seed with zinc (Zn) inoculation (0 and 100 mg kg‑1 of Zn), and nitrogen (N) fertilization (0, 115, 230 and 460 kg ha-1) on wheat grown under saline soil conditions. The crop was established during the 2016-2017 and 2017-2018 winter-spring growing seasons. The experimental design was a three-way factorial treatment arranged under a completely randomized block design with four replicates. The response variables measured were growth, crop nutrition, and yield, as well as soil residual effects of treatments. The N × SI interaction affected the growth, nitrates on cellular extract of stem, and yield of wheat. Rate of 460 kg N ha-1 produced the highest number of spikes m-2 and 115 kg N ha-1 the highest grain weight. Harvest index was higher with SI but decreased when the seed was inoculated with Zn. Soil salinity reduced with SI, whereas Zn × SI interaction modified soil pH, nitrates, phosphates, and soil organic matter. The organic matter in soil was affected by N × SI interaction. In conclusion, crop productivity was improved by SI because essential soil properties were modified by Zn seed inoculation, which increased crop growth and N maximized wheat yield.</p> Fidel Núñez-Ramírez Raúl Leonel Grijalva-Contreras Rubén Macías-Duarte Blancka Yesenia Samaniego-Gámez Isabel Escobosa-García Onécimo Grimaldo-Juárez Ángel Manuel Suarez-Hernández Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2022-04-13 2022-04-13 40 10.28940/terra.v40i0.1010 Soil CO2 efflux fluctuates in three different annual seasons in a semideciduous tropical forest in Yucatan, Mexico <p>Tropical forest soils store a third of the global terrestrial carbon and control carbon dioxide (CO2) terrestrial effluxes to the atmosphere produced by root and microbial respiration. Soil CO2 efflux varies in time and space and is known to be strongly influenced by soil temperature and water content. However, little is known about the influence of seasonality on soil CO2 efflux, especially in tropical dry forests. This study evaluated soil CO2 efflux, soil temperature, and soil volumetric water content in a semideciduous tropical forest of the Yucatan Peninsula under two sites (flat areas close to and far from hills), and three seasons: dry, wet, and early dry (a transition between the rainy and dry seasons) throughout a year. Additionally, six 24-h periods of soil CO2 efflux were measured within these three seasons. The mean annual soil CO2 efflux was 4±2.2 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1, like the mean soil CO2 efflux during the early dry season. In all seasons, soil CO2 efflux increased linearly with soil moisture, which explained 45% of the spatial-temporal variation of soil CO2 efflux. Soil CO2 efflux was higher close to than far from hills in some months. The daily variation of soil CO2 efflux was less important than its spatial and seasonal variation likely due to small diel variations in temperature. Transition seasons are common in many tropical dry forests, and they should be taken into consideration to have a better understanding of the annual soil CO2 efflux, especially under future climate-change scenarios.</p> Fernando Arellano-Martín Juan Manuel Dupuy Roberth Us-Santamaría José Luis Andrade Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2022-04-01 2022-04-01 40 10.28940/terra.v40i0.968 Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus and organics substrates effect on bean plant morphology and minerals <p>Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are obligate symbionts that require a host plant (tramp) and support (substrates) to be applied as bio-fertilizers in agriculture. The objective of this study is to assess eight native AMF consortia of semi-arid zones (C1-ART, C2-GEC, C3-PAR, C4-VIE, C5-CUC, C6-SAC, C7-SAB, and C8-MUZ) and their reproduction response in three organic substrates: coffee pulp (CP), bovine manure (BM) and sugarcane bagasse (SB) on bean Phaseolus vulgaris. Plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, root length, fresh and dry biomass, and mineral content in root were measured. The organic substrates (CP and BM) and C5-CUC and C8-MUZ consortia increased plant height, root length, and total fresh and dry biomass considerably. After day 75 of inoculation, root colonization oscillated from 5.7% in C8-MUZ to 46.1% in C2-GEC and C4-VIE; the greatest number of spores (201) was obtained in CP substrate in a 100-g sample. N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn contents in root and leaves were signif icantly high (P ≤ 0.001). To conclude, native AMF inoculation and substrates had positive effects on biomass content and nutrient levels in leaf and root with the C2-GEC and C3-PAR consortia and CP and BM substrates, which produced better effects in beans, making them a biofertilization alternative in agricultural crops.</p> José Rafael Paredes-Jácome Luis Guillermo Hernández-Montiel Valentin Robledo-Torres José Antonio González-Fuentes Roberto Gregorio Chiquito-Contreras Rosalinda Mendoza-Villarreal Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2022-04-01 2022-04-01 40 10.28940/terra.v40i0.1012 Influence of three irrigation regimes on agronomic quality of cultivated rye in the coast of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico <p>Cereals are a fundamental part of the world diet; therefore, their adaptation in different environments due to climate change should be achieved. Studying the modif ications that may occur during plant development is essential, as well as in the quality of the harvested product. Thus the objective of this research is to analyze the effect of water stress on development, growth, production, and agronomic quality of rye crop and harvested grain. For sowing, a completely randomized one-way experimental design was used, where the treatments consisted of three different soil moisture regimes. The variables evaluated at the time of harvest were plant height and number of spikes per linear meter. After harvest, the variables evaluated were spike size and the number of grains it contained, as well as size and color of the grain, weight of 1000 grains, test weight, yield, ash and protein content. An analysis of variance and Tukey’s comparison of means test (P &lt; 0.05) were performed for ash and protein content, and Duncan (P &lt; 0.05 and P ≤ 0.0001) for the rest of the determinations. The results showed that less irrigation did not negatively affect the crop with an appropriate agronomic development, highlighting an increase in the number and size of spikes, an increase in the number of grains per spike, as well as a high yield and protein content of the grain. These values were higher than those reported in previous research, which conf irms that even though rye is considered a winter cereal, it managed to acclimate to soil conditions, decreased water, and high temperatures in the coastal area of Hermosillo, Sonora, México.</p> Lorena Carolina Sosa-Yáñez José Luis García-Hernández Francisco Rodríguez-Félix Luis Arturo Bello-Pérez Juscelino Tovar Juan Pedro López-Córdova Guadalupe Amanda López-Ahumada Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2022-03-04 2022-03-04 40 10.28940/terra.v40i0.1073 Chelate EDDHA to correct the iron deficiency in Italian lemon trees (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck) <p>Citriculture is one of the most important productive activities in the State of Tamaulipas, Mexico. However, in most orchards the yields of these fruit trees are low and frequently of poor quality due to a low supply of iron and other micronutrients. The calcareous characteristics of the soils such as a moderately alkaline pH –around 8– and a calcium carbonate content higher than 40% induce the precipitation of iron in the form of oxides and hydroxides, causing low availability of Fe for the plant. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the FeEDDHA chelate applied to the soil. In our study we used 25-year-old Italian lemon trees (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck) grafted on sour orange rootstocks, with visual symptoms of iron deficiency and severe and persistent yellowing of new leaves. The application of different concentrations of FeEDDHA chelate (50, 100 and 150 g tree-1) to the soil and the control treatment were evaluated. We applied FeEDDHA to the soil with the purpose of determining the most appropriate dose of the chelator to correct the iron deficiency in Italian lemon trees under calcareous soil conditions of the Central zone of the State. The application of the chelate to the soil in doses between 50 and 100 g tree‑1 of FeEDDHA increased the SPAD index in the leaves, corrected the Fe deficiency in the trees, and significantly increased the foliar concentration of Fe to an optimal level (77 mg kg-1 Fe), the fruit yield (40 Mg ha-1) and the economic income. In addition, the application of a higher dose, 150 g tree-1 of FeEDDHA, did not significantly increase iron assimilation and fruit production in Italian lemon trees.</p> Juan Valentín Puente-Ramírez Patricio Rivera-Ortiz José Hugo Silva-Espinosa Elizabeth Andrade-Limas Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2022-03-01 2022-03-01 40 10.28940/terra.v40i0.926 Biochar from sugarcane apices as a soil conditioner for greenhouse cultivation of Ocimum basilicum var. thyrsiflora <p>The incorporation of biochar obtained from husks, stubble, forest residues, manures, among other residues into the soil can improve the growth of crops. The objective of our study was to evaluate the effect of sugarcane apice biochar (SAB) on the growth of thai basil (Ocimum basilicum var. thyrsiflora) grown in a greenhouse. The treatments consisted of mixtures of biochar and sandy loam soil (v/v) at 0 (control), 7, 14, 21 and 28% concentrations. Plant height, fresh and dry matter, foliar area, SPAD units and the foliar nutrient concentration were evaluated. The use of 7% SAB increased the fresh matter (45.1%), dry matter (35.2%) and foliar area (54.5%). On the other hand, the 21% SAB treatment showed the highest foliar concentration of total-N (44.33 g kg-1), P (9.55 g kg‑1) and Ca (12.61 g kg-1). We conclude that sugarcane apice biochar can be incorporated into the soil as an alternative in the agronomic management of Thai basil.</p> Carlos Alberto Pérez-Cabrera Porfirio Juárez-López José Anzaldo-Hernández Irán Alia-Tejacal Luis Alonso Valdez-Aguilar Gelacio Alejo-Santiago Rogelio Castro-Brindis Víctor López-Martínez Daniela Alvarado-Camarillo Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2022-02-28 2022-02-28 40 10.28940/terra.v40i0.1077 Effect of applying nutritive solutions on bromatological quality of the hydroponic green forage of Avena sativa and Hordeum vulgare <p>Forage quality is important since it intervenes in aspects related to animal nutrition and productivity and in environmental effects such as methane generation (CH4). Forage quality is determined by a bromatological analysis, which measures variables such as: dry weight (DW), crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ash. Thus, the objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of drinking water and two nutritional solutions with different nitrate/ammonium (NO3-/NH3+) ratios on fresh weight (FW) and bromatological quality of hydroponic green forage (HGF). Oats (Avena sativa) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) were sampled at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 days after planting. The variables FW, DW, CP, NDF, ADF, and ash were measured. For the statistical analysis, a 3×2 factorial model (three nutritive solutions and two seed species) was used with repeated measurements over time and Tukey’s comparison of means (P ≤ 0.05). According to the analysis of variance (P ≤ 0.05) (i) time had significant effects on all the variables studied; (ii) nutrient solutions only affected CP; and (iii) the species used had an effect on CP, NDF, ADF and ash. Consistent with the comparison of means, (i) an increase in value of all variables was observed as sampling time progressed; (ii) CP percentage was higher with nutritive solutions than with drinking water, but no difference was observed between solutions; and (iii) hydroponically-grown (HGF) oats had higher CP, NDF, ADF and ash values. To conclude, HGF oats has better nutritional characteristics for livestock than HGF barley.</p> José Manuel Salvador-Castillo Martín Alejandro Bolaños-González Ana Karen Cedillo-Aviles Yaneth Vázquez-Chena Sergio Antonio Varela-de Gante José Luis Meza-Discua Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2022-02-18 2022-02-18 40 10.28940/terra.v40i0.996 Contingency analysis of natural distribution of Mexican pines in risk category <p>Studies on species natural distribution are necessary to determine the effect of social and environmental conditions on spatial distribution. The objectives of this research were to know the natural distribution of pine species considered at risk by Mexican laws and identify the possible association between these categories and socio-environmental factors (marginalization, soil degradation and forest productivity). For this purpose, a database was created on location and socioeconomic characteristics of the pines created from various sources. The independence between the risk categories of the pines and the socio-environmental factors was evaluated by means of a contingency analysis, which considers a chi-square statistics test. Of the 20 listed pine species, a total of 2480 records were obtained. Highly marginalized areas recorded 4.48%, high 26.21%, medium 18.47%, and low 50.85%. Thirteen species are found on degraded soils; 55.79% of the records are in a moderate situation, 37.76% light, 6.22% strong, and 0.21% extreme. Production, areas recorded 65.89% (of the total species), 30.81% in Conservation and 3.31% in restoration. The chi-square statistics test showed that the proportions of pine species in danger of extinction ─and in special protection─ are not the same in the different types of forest zoning, as well as in the different degrees of marginalization and soil degradation.</p> Ramiro Pérez-Miranda Efraín Velasco-Bautista Martín Enrique Romero-Sánchez Jonathan Hernández-Ramos Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2022-02-07 2022-02-07 40 10.28940/terra.v40i0.1043 Effects of applying bovine manure and vermicompost on soil in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) cultivation <p>The use of residues in agricultural production systems requires the use of different organic fertilizers to find application levels and possible combinations that produce quality crops. Thus, the objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of bovine manure (EB) and vermicompost (V) on soil, as well as the positive result in watermelon production. EB and V were applied in the same experimental site for two continuous cycles (2013-2014): EB at the levels of 0, 40, 60 and 80 Mg ha‑1, considering chemical fertilization for the Comarca Lagunera (FQ) 120-60 -00 and V 0, 3.0, 6.0 and 9.0 Mg ha-1. Soil samples were taken at the beginning and end of each year at three depths taking into consideration the plant root area and moisture bulb 0-15, 15-30 and 30-45 cm, evaluating organic matter (MO), pH, electrical conductivity (CE) and nitrates (NO3-). Total soluble solids (°Bx) and yield were evaluated in the fruit. The highest contents of MO (3.23% in 2013) and NO3- (41.4 kg ha-1 in 2014) were found at 0-15 cm with the interaction of 80 Mg ha-1 (EB) and 9.0 Mg ha-1 (V). CE increased to 6.6 dS m-1 from 0-15 cm, which after two application cycles implied the decrease in yield to 66.1% at the levels of 80 Mg ha-1 (EB) and 3.0 Mg ha -1 (V). In 2014 differences were found for yield and °Bx when the highest yield (29.2 Mg ha-1) was obtained at 80 Mg ha-1 EB level with 6.0 Mg ha-1 of V and for °Bx equal to 8.4 in the interaction of 60 Mg ha-1 of EB with 9.0 Mg ha-1 of vermicompost.</p> Tomás Juan Álvaro Cervantes-Vázquez Pablo Preciado-Rangel Manuel Fortis-Hernández Ana Alejandra Valenzuela-García José Luís García-Hernández María Gabriela Cervantes-Vázquez Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2022-02-07 2022-02-07 40 10.28940/terra.v40i0.835 Performance of Huacle chili (Capsicum annuum L.) with implementation of compost and Azospirillum sp. in greenhouse <p>Mexico is considered the center of origin of the chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), which has two groups: common chili peppers (available throughout the country) and local chili peppers. Our research was carried out with the purpose of knowing the performance of the black, red and yellow Huacle chili genotypes (local chilies from Cuicatlán, Oaxaca, two of them used to make the black mole), as well as evaluating their performance and quality under greenhouse conditions with two production systems: organic and inorganic, with addition and without addition of rizo-bacteria Azospirillum sp. The sowing was performed in trays with 200 cavities, using peat moss as substrate. The substrates used were: sand + compost at a) 20% and b) 35% doses, and for the control, c) 100% of sand. The pots were placed in a double row of plants in trefoil arrangement with a space of 30 cm between plants and 80 cm between aisles. The experimental design used was completely randomized blocks with two repetitions and an experimental unit of 8 pots per genotype. The following variables: plant height, number of leaves per plant, green and dry weight of the aerial part of the plant, green and dry weight of the root, and number of fruits per plant showed highest values in the conventional production system based on a substrate with 100% of sand and inorganic nutrient solution. Dry yield and fruit quality (polar diameter, cavity width and pulp thickness) were higher in the organic production system based on compost and additions of Azospirillum. According to these results, we conclude that among the Huacle chili genotypes, the black genotype, adapted favorably to the organic production system with doses of 20% of compost and additions of Azospirillum.</p> Gaudencio Galeote-Cid Pedro Cano-Ríos José Apolinar Ramírez-Ibarra Urbano Nava-Camberos José Luis Reyes-Carrillo María Gabriela Cervantes-Vázquez Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2022-02-07 2022-02-07 40 10.28940/terra.v40i0.828 Estimation and analysis of the carbon content in halophilic grasslands from the semi-arid central part of Mexico <p>Estimates of carbon storage and release depend mainly on vegetation type, land-use change, vegetation age and ecosystem type (closed or open). The carbon sequestered and stored has a positive environmental value, while its release to the atmosphere due to land-use change causes environmental damage by contributing to global atmospheric warming. Natural grasslands in Mexico occupy around 10% of the National territory, from which halophytes have been scarcely studied in terms of their contribution to the carbon cycle. Therefore, the objective of our study was to estimate the aboveground and belowground biomass and carbon content of vegetation type. We defined an effective sampling area of 70 ha in halophilic grasslands of the state of Puebla, and the quadrant method was proposed under a sampling design with nested fixed plots. To determine the carbon content, samples were collected in the field and transported to the laboratory to be dried at a constant temperature. The total carbon content calculated for halophilic grassland was 1.33 Mg ha-1, ranging from 0.55 to 2.6 Mg ha-1. The aboveground part was estimated at 0.49 Mg ha-1 in terms of biomass, while the belowground part was 2.34 Mg ha-1. The belowground biomass measured in the field showed a high correlation with total carbon (r = 0.87), hence, it could be considered as a viable option for carbon estimation using the proposed regression model.</p> Martín Enrique Romero-Sánchez Efraín Velasco-Bautista David Josué Meza-Juárez Ramiro Pérez-Miranda Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2022-02-07 2022-02-07 40 10.28940/terra.v40i0.1007 Foliar biofortification with iron improves nutraceutical quality and antioxidant capacity in lettuce <p>Iron (Fe) is an essential trace element for human health and its deficiency affects 1.2 billion people in the world. Agronomic biofortification can mitigate this deficiency as its application in crops improves the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds and promotes their bioaccumulation. Our research aims to evaluate the effect of the foliar application of Fe (FeSO4) on the yield, biosynthesis of bioactive compounds and accumulation in lettuce. For this, five treatments were applied by foliar route: 0, 10, 20, 30 and 35 µM L‑1. At harvest, the nutraceutical quality and the accumulation of Fe in leaves were quantified, as well as the productivity of the lettuce plant. Biofortification with Fe positively modified the biosynthesis of phytochemical compounds and their concentration in lettuce leaves, without affecting the yield. Fe foliar spraying is an alternative to increase the biosynthesis of phytochemical compounds and increase the concentration of this element in lettuce.</p> Pablo Preciado-Rangel Ana Alejandra Valenzuela-García Laura Andrea Pérez-García Uriel González-Salas Sergio Arturo Ortiz-Díaz Alain Buendía-García Edgar Omar Rueda-Puente Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2022-02-07 2022-02-07 40 10.28940/terra.v40i0.1060 Potential of essential oils in the control of Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands and Fusarium sp. in vitro in Cinnamomum verum <p>Cinnamon (Cinnamomum sp.) is a species with few but significant health limitations, of which Phytophthora cinnamomi and Fusarium sp. are the most important ones that affect the root. Their control based on synthetic fungicides has favored resistance due to poor handling, so their control with essential oils is a viable alternative. The objective of this study is to determine the antifungal potential of thyme and clove – essential oils for the control of P. cinnamomi and Fusarium sp. isolated from Cinnamomum verum. Concentrations of 60, 120 and 300 μL L-1 were evaluated for both oils and phytopathogens. Data recorded on the mycelial growth rate of pathogens after incubation of Fusarium sp. at 25 ± 1 °C and 28 ± 1 °C had a significant difference in the concentrations tested. When clove essential oil was used in P. cinnamomi, the pathogen did not grow with the concentration of 300 μL L-1; with 120 μL L-1 growth rate was 0.06 mm per day, and with the concentration of 60 μL L-1, it reached a growth rate of 1.16 mm per day. With respect to Fusarium sp. mycelial growth was completely inhibited with doses of 120 and 300 μL L-1 of essential oils; with thyme oil a similar trend was observed at concentrations of 120 and 300 μL L-1 greatly inhibiting effects of the two pathogens. It is noteworthy that the doses of 300 μL L-1 of the two essential oils are able to inhibit in their entirety (P ≤ 0.05) growth of both pathogens. The use of thyme and clove essential oils can be an alternative in preventive control of cinnamon root diseases.</p> Petra Andrade-Hoyos José Alberto Urrieta-Velázquez Nadia Landero-Valenzuela Homero Reyes-de la Cruz Salvador Sampayo-Maldonado Alfonso Luna-Cruz Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2022-02-07 2022-02-07 40 10.28940/terra.v40i0.1004 Biostimulant influence on morphological and agrochemical characters in banana (Musa AAA cv. Williams) <p>Some of the limitations for plant acclimatization in vitro in banana cultivation have been poor rooting and slow leaf development, which affect survival in the f ield under stress conditions after planting. The aim of this study is to compare seedling response of Musa cv. Williams treated with biostimulants and commercial de-stressing agents. Thirty days after inoculation, pseudostem diameter (cm), fresh plant mass (g),&nbsp;fresh root mass (g), root number, soil-plant analysis development (SPAD) index, edaphic ionic content and foliar content (pH, CE, NO3-, K+, Na+ and Ca2+) were evaluated. Preliminary results indicated, that StresSal® and (StresSal® + Equilibrium®) showed signif icantly greater pseudostem diameter. The highest radical fresh mass corresponded to (Inicium® + StresSal®). Root number was not signif icantly different. The SPAD index was elevated when StresSal® was applied alone or with Equilibrium®. The treatment (Inicium®+StresSal®) contributed to higher soil acidity. Conductivity (CE), K+ and Na+ were higher when Inicium® +&nbsp;Pro-&nbsp;Fulvic® were applied. As NO3- levels increased with Inicium®, Ca2+ ions decreased signif icantly in soil with Inicium® + StresSal®. Regarding foliar content, the highest pH corresponded to Inicium®, conductivity (CE) was higher with StresSal® and Inicium® + StresSal®, without difference with the control. An increase in NO3- was found with Inicium® + StresSal®. While Na+ and Ca2+ were signif icantly higher with Inicium® +&nbsp;Pro-Fulvic®.</p> Francisco Andrés Ugarte-Barco Iván Armando Zhiñin-Huachun Ricardo Hernández-Pérez Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 40 10.28940/terra.v40i0.1456 Aluminium localization and quantification in plant tissues: analytical and histochemical tools <p>Aluminum (Al) is the third most abundant element in the Earth’s crust. Its chemical form depends on the soil pH values. In acidic soils, Al is released and solubilized mainly in the ionic form of Al3+, which is toxic to most plants. The main toxic ef fects of Al are observed at the root apex, inhibiting cell division and elongation, which causes a def icient root to uptake water and nutrients, resulting in growth inhibition, thus, a decrease in plant productivity. At present, Al is available in soils that are not naturally acidic and used as farmland, which has generated a research line in relation with the ef fect of Al in dif ferent plant species, for example, accumulation and concentration sites in the dif ferent plant organs. In this context, the objective of this review article is to provide a guide to select the most appropriate technique that allows localizing and quantifying Al in the dif ferent organs of plants growing in acidic soils. For this purpose, the fundamentals of the dif ferent techniques to locate and quantify Al in plant organs and/or tissues are f irst described, and this information is integrated by providing a guide recommending the most appropriate technique based on some characteristics of the species to be analyzed. Furthermore, going deeper into the study of Al accumulation sites and concentrations that the plants can absorb should allow selecting tolerant crops that can be used for agricultural production or phytoremediation studies.</p> Verónica Monserrat Rodríguez-Sánchez Joselin Damaris Morales-Moreno Silke Cram-Heydrich Rocío Cruz-Ortega Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 40 10.28940/terra.v40i0.999 Omic technologies for the exploration of the soil biocrust <p>The "omics" technologies are novel tools that facilitate the study of microbial communities in different ecosystems, particularly the biological soil crust, also called biocrust. These technologies include genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and metagenomics, which are used to analyze the diversity and functions carried out by microorganisms through the study of their biomolecules and metabolic pathways. Among the microorganisms that inhabit the biocrust are the cyanobacteria, which are a group of phototrophic bacteria responsible for important processes in the soil, such as the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen, organic carbon, chlorophyll and phycobilin synthesis, as well as the production of exopolysaccharides to improve soil stability and fertility. Therefore, the objective of this review is to explore the diversity and role that these microbial communities play in the biocrust, particularly cyanobacteria, highlighting studies conducted using omics technologies. The knowledge generated in recent years through omics technologies has demonstrated the limited coverage of traditional molecular techniques, resulting in an underestimation of the real diversity of microbial communities. In addition, there has been an improvement in the understanding of the ecological processes developed by the microorganisms for the benefit of the biocrust, as well as the individual and collective functional capacities, which will serve as a baseline to propose important strategies to solve the problem of soil degradation.</p> Jaime Neftalí Márquez-Godoy Román González-Escobedo Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2022-02-07 2022-02-07 40 10.28940/terra.v40i0.1062 Malvaceae family: fundamental species in agro-food industry with commercial, nutrimental and nutraceutical value <p>The Malvaceae family has species widely distributed worldwide, some of them, such as cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), cacao (Theobroma cacao) and hibiscus (Hibiscus sabdarif fa) are widely used in the agri-food industry and the textile industry; even so, not all the bioactive potential of these species has been exploited, such is the case of H. sabdarif fa, since most of the seeds are considered as agro-industrial waste; there are species of this family, such as some members of the Sterculia and Ceiba genus, that have not been exploited on a massive scale in various industries, despite the fact that there are numerous studies that demonstrate their nutraceutical and medicinal potential.</p> Miguel Tirso Robles-Valdivia María Guadalupe Sánchez-Otero Copyright (c) 2022 REVISTA TERRA LATINOAMERICANA 2022-08-29 2022-08-29 40 10.28940/terra.v40i0.943 Editorial Committee Rosa María López-Atilano Copyright (c) 2022-02-01 2022-02-01 40 Portada Interna Rosa María López-Atilano Copyright (c) 2022-02-01 2022-02-01 40 Editorial sobre los artículos del Programa Mexicano del Carbono (PMC) <p>Se presenta el tercer número especial del Programa Mexicano del Carbono (PMC) en colaboración con la revista Terra Latinoamericana, orientado hacia la síntesis y modelación del carbono orgánico de los suelos y sus interacciones, en seguimiento al esfuerzo del PMC para el desarrollo de los elementos para el Segundo Reporte del Estado del Ciclo del Carbono en México. Los artículos incluidos en este número abordan diferentes perspectivas sobre el quehacer de avanzar en el conocimiento de la ciencia del suelo, con la finalidad de construir escenarios de medidas de intervención para mitigar y, adaptarse, al cambio climático a escala de país, desde lo local.</p> Fernando Paz-Pellat Copyright (c) 2021-12-15 2021-12-15 40 Mujer, Milpa y Sustentabilidad: Una Mirada Distinta de los Socio Agroecosistemas <p>Se presenta el número especial “Mujer, Milpa y Sustentabilidad: Una Mirada Distinta de los Socio Agroecosistemas”, en colaboración con la revista Terra Latinoamericana.</p> <p>Históricamente las mujeres campesinas han sido un eje articulador entre el medio ambiente y la sociedad, su relación con los agroecosistemas ha derivado en practicas agrícolas con aporte agroecológico y, su papel dentro las unidades familiares en el arraigo de sus principios socio y bioculturales. La combinación de los dos factores le ha permitido generar un manejo múltiple de los agroecosistemas al combinar diferentes sistemas agrícolas y pecuarios con elementos bióticos. El escenario planteado ha sentado las bases para otorgarle a la mujer la posibilidad de empoderamiento en las funciones comunitarias que derivan en la producción alimentos destinados al autoconsumo o a la comercialización en mercados locales, en la generación de empleos (directos e indirectos) e ingresos y en el fortalecimiento de la seguridad alimentaria. La participación y protagonismo de la mujer en el ámbito rural ha fortalecido el liderazgo transformacional femenina reflejado en el crecimiento y desarrollo local rural sustentable; las transformaciones socioambientales también han sido resultado del papel que juega la mujer en los modelos agroalimentarios de subsistencia, a través de los cuales se han adoptado prácticas económicas tradicionales y, en consecuencia, integrado a la mujer en diferentes eslabones de las cadenas de valor, sea de manera individual o a través de cooperativas. Al extender la mujer su participación en la agroindustria alimentaria genera ventajas comparativas y competitivas, dado que transforma sus productos primarios a través del otorgamiento de valor agregado en el mismo lugar donde los obtiene, aunado a que, a través de esta actividad diversifican la oferta de productos, generan y fomentan la creación de empleos locales, incrementan la cobertura de mercado e impulsan el desarrollo territorial. Por lo anterior, se deduce que la mujer ha jugado un papel trascendental durante el proceso y transformación de las economías locales que son resultado de su interrelación con la sociedad y los agroecosistemas y, que se ve traducida en la competitividad territorial autosustentable y autosostenible.</p> Gabriela Rodríguez-Licea Copyright (c) 2022-09-01 2022-09-01 40